Saturday, August 31, 2019

Gender differences Essay

It could be said that to some extent the view that processes within schools may lead to gender differences in educational achievement is true. The theory of Interactionist looks at the individual rather than society; therefore it is a bottom up theory. Interactionist argue that the processes within the schools such as the hidden curriculum may lead students in gender differences in educational achievement, as what happens inside the school which is unwritten is what influences the individual in educational achievement, not the formal curriculum or what is written rule such as the subjects which is being studied influences the student to achieve. The sociologist Goffman explains that everyone in society is â€Å"presenting the self in everyday life†. What he means is that everyone is a puppet of society and not in control of what they say or do, but in fact they are attached in strings and act for example in play, such as a female may play the role of a mother at home but play the role of a student at school. Some argue that the structure and settings of schools, generally creates gender differences in educational achievement, for example the socialisation aspect is that the students are socialised into tolerable forms of behaviour ‘pupils are given drill in how to move about the school, sit in desk, raise hands†¦ the puritan of hard work, sober living and good manners is continuously urged upon them. ‘ This socialisation naturally created gender differences as males are seen or expected to behave in classrooms in the manner of ‘masculine’ while females are seen or expected to behave in ‘feminine’ behaviour or otherwise it could be considered odd, and therefore the students who do behave odd are looked at differently or called ‘deviant’. The sociologist Postman and Weingartner, studied that the hidden curriculum consisted of discovering that; knowledge is beyond the power of students and is in case none of their business; secondly recall is the highest form of intellectual achievement and therefore the collection of ‘facts’ is the goal of education; the voice of authority is to be trusted more than independent judgement; feelings are irrelevant in education; passive acceptance is a more desirable response to ideas than active criticism. This study proves that the individual does not play in an important role but rather how to ‘survive’ the school and just pass the exams was important and therefore not keen on which gender is learning or how but on how they should just ‘pass the time’ in school and move on as education is not about the self but on facts and memorising, and not understanding. As a result it could be said that the study of classroom interaction is the idea that the ‘reality’ of the classroom is a negotiated reality. For students and teachers, the hidden curriculum consists of learning how to survive in the classroom.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Developing Oral Language Summary Essay

Oral language and written language are essential skills that are needed for comprehension. Comprehension is defined as an understanding of oral and written language. In order for a child to comprehend what they are reading, several factors must come into play. Reading and decoding the words effortlessly without errors is the main step toward comprehension. When a child is reading text, they are experiencing phonemic awareness by sounding out the words in their mind. Writing is the next step toward comprehension. Writing goes hand in hand with reading. When a child is writing, they are also sounding out the words in their mind. Adults play a huge role in how children develop oral language skills. Automatic language is part of our everyday routines and children learn by â€Å"listening and speaking, phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge, print awareness, comprehension, and writing† (, n.d.). When students are learning to read and write, they do so simultaneously. It used to be thought that students should learn how to read first and then learn how to write. However, research has shown that learning to write while learning to read is important and vital in the development of reading (Pearson, D. 2007). A student needs to be able to read and write fluently in order to comprehend the material. In order to comprehend academic language, which is what students will use in school, there are certain concepts that a student must learn. Students need to learn syntax which is how words are formed to be able to create sentences void of errors. Students need to semantics which is defined as the meaning of language. Students should be able to cognitively understand and think about what they are reading. They also need to know how to use the language which is known as pragmatics. Through the use of various resources, students build up their vocabulary and strengthen their abilities to read fluently. â€Å"†¦the larger the reader’s vocabulary (either oral or print), the easier it is to make sense of the text† (National Institute,.n.d.). At this point, they will learn text structure and how sentences are strewn together. Of course, this all depends on what genre of text they are attempting to read and how complex the text in regards to the grade specific text they are reading. Being able to comprehend what one is reading all depends on what mood the student is in at the time. The student should be motivated and interested in the reading material. They need to understand the purpose of the reading; is it for enjoyment or for a school assignment? All of these are key factors that lead to comprehension. Another element of comprehension is cognitive targets. Cognitive targets are defined as the way a person comprehends or thinks about what is being read. The targets are locate and recall, integrate and interpret, and critique and evaluate. Locate and recall refers to locating or recalling something specific, such as the main idea, about the text they have read. Integrate and interpret refers to how a student can explain or compare what they have read. Critique and evaluate refers to how a student exams the text or evaluates certain parts of the text. Students practice these cognitive targets in both literary and informational texts. Examples of literary text include poetry, fiction, and non-fiction. â€Å"Informational texts include three broad categories: exposition; argumentation and persuasive text; and procedural text and documents texts† (NAEP). There are specific forms of instruction to improve comprehension and are most effective when taught together if possible. Comprehension monitoring is when a person is aware that they understand what is being read. Cooperative learning is when a group of students learn to read together. Graphic and semantic organizers are tools that readers use to represent material so that it is easier to comprehend. Question generation and question answering is when a reader asks themselves questions about the text and answers questions from the teacher. Story structure is when students are able to remember the main part of the story and answer questions about the story. Summarization is when a student reads text material and is able to generalize the entire text into a shorter passage. According to the article, Writing to Read, â€Å"instructional recommendations have shown clear results for improving students’ reading† (Graham S., Hebert. M., 2010). When these are other instructional methods are implemented into the reading process, comprehension can be very effective. This is especially true if these methods are built on top of an already developed language, strong background knowledge, and a high vocabulary. When teaching students comprehension through oral language and writing, teachers need to incorporate English language learners into their curriculum. English language learners may have linguistic issues and cultural background issues that are not only preventing comprehension, but also preventing reading and writing to begin with. As a teacher, it is crucial to first assess the ELL’s reading status to find out exactly where they are in the reading process. If so, what strategies can be implemented to better teacher the ELL’s. Also, a teacher needs to assess whether the student’s cultural background is preventing them from understanding the language. If this is the case, the teacher needs to learn the student’s background in order to assess where they are coming from academically. Not unlike native English learners, socioeconomic background can have an effect on how an ELL student is doing in school. According to the article, Cultural and Linguistic Impact, Patricia C. Salazar explains, â€Å"A student who comes from an educated middle-class family will have a different approach to learning than one who comes from a war-torn region of the world where food is scarce, and tragedy and trauma are daily occurrences† (Salazar, PC. 2009). Teaching an ELL student how to develop oral and written language will come from a successful assessment of the student. In order for a student to be successful at comprehension, oral language and written language skills must be mastered first. Reading is enhanced by written language and writing is enhanced by oral language. To facilitate a child’s learning, parents and teachers should provide as many resources as possible to accomplish this. In order to comprehend oral and written language, the student needs to be motivated and be reading grade specific text in order for the student to retain what they are reading. Cognitive targets are useful in facilitating comprehension and used regularly. Teachers also use different forms of instruction when teaching students how to build oral and written language. Finally, when teaching English language learners how to develop oral and written language, it is imperative that the teacher first learn of any linguistic or background issues and adjust their curriculum accordingly. It is crucial that educators teach students how to develop oral and written language in order to be successful academically. References Graham, S. & Hebert, M. (2010). Writing to Read: Evidence for how Writing can Improve Reading. Vanderbilt University. Carnegie Corporation, NY. Retrieved from: Language Development. (n.d.). Retrieved from: Language and Literacy Language. (n.d.). Retrieved from: and Literacy National Center for Education Statistics. (n.d.). National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Retrieved from: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). What Works in Comprehension Instruction. Retrieved from: Pearson, D.P. (2007). Reading Researcher Advocates Strengthening Literacy Programs Through Reading-Writing Synergy. Retrieved from:

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Effects of Music and the Media on Culture and Society Essay

Effects of Music and the Media on Culture and Society - Essay Example In fact, with the growing acceptance of music within the American society, many musicians, composers, and singers have emerged and created their style of music according to their preferred genres. The role of music has given the American society a tool for inspiration, amusement, and encouragement to utilize the musical abilities of the people. However, the effects of music in the society have negated because of how it influences aggressive thoughts, feelings, and actions especially the portrayals of the artists in music videos. According to researches, majority of members of the society who listen to music are the young people, in which music plays a significant role in their teenage lives. Specifically, American adolescents mostly listen to kinds of music such as hip-hop, gangster music, rap, and heavy metal that have a significant impact to the minds and behaviors among youth. For example, teenagers who are fond in listening rap music or gangster music tend to dress themselves as a rapper or gangster based on how music videos display its genre. Hence, despite the fact that music has brought racial unity in the American society, it had also brought negative impacts especially to the minds of the young people in America (â€Å"The Negative Effects†). The Role of Media The media have been used by people all over the world, from a different race, culture, socioeconomic status, and also across ages because of how it served as a tool for knowledge, teaching, amusement, and advertising. The media are responsible for delivering credible and reliable stories, news, and facts to the people around the world. Accordingly, the principal role of media... This report approves that the American society had used media as a tool for entertainment and information through books, films, televisual entertainment, periodicals, advertisements, and online networking. Accordingly, the American society is principally molded by the functional role of media within the lives of the people. Nowadays, the most utilized and influential technology for media is the internet because of how it provides all the portrayal of information and amusements. Furthermore, television is widely used in the society because of its accessibility by the people and attracting more preference rather than listening to a radio or reading periodicals. The media portray different kinds of information that could alter or create different perspective in the minds of the people. For example, people in the society would perceive that the figure of a model is what the society wants, and in turn, tend to have similar figure of the model. This essay amkes a conclusion that music and media have both gained popularity within the American society and became part of the American culture. However, the role of music and media had become stronger and had influenced most of the culture and society in America. Particularly, the existence of music has created an American culture and society that respects different races or ethnicities as people get along through the desire of creating wonderful music. Moreover, the media have created an American culture and society of independence and also the freedom in expressing information that are important for the American people. Hence, the music and media have the important role in shaping the culture and society to the best interest of the people.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Reynoldss Views of Ise Shrine Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Reynoldss Views of Ise Shrine - Assignment Example One of the biggest arguments in their favor is that the continual destruction and rebuilding of the shrine is part of the modernist aesthetic (324). The strong points of Reynolds’s organization are that the long historical introduction builds up well to his claim so that by the time Reynolds makes it seems logical. However, at the same time, that long historical introduction makes the essay somewhat difficult to read. It seems like Reynolds could have spent a lot less time on historical facts or at least applied them more directly to his main argument. Reynolds validates his authority throughout the essay. On the one hand, he continually cites Japanese sources, which makes it clear that he is very familiar with his topic and able to make statements about it. On the other, he writes at great length about many aspects of both Ise Shrine’s history and the aesthetics of Japanese modernism. Reynolds clearly has authority to write about modernist views of Ise Shrine.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

An e-Business analysis of Research Paper

An e-Business analysis of - Research Paper Example Barnes & Noble history can be traced to its acquisition in the early 1960s by Leonard Riggio; this is the period when he began his bookselling profession while in New York University. By 1970, the company was succeeding and it included 6 other college bookstores; it acquired trade name Barnes & Noble and the flagship bookstore in Manhattan. Between 1970s and 1980s the company made several significant moves. In 1974, it became the first bookseller in U.S. to put an advert in television; the â€Å"Of Course! Of Course!† advert. In 1975, Barnes & Noble made a bold move and became the first bookseller by offering discount books in the United States; it offered New York Times bestsellers at a discount of 40 percent off the publishers’ list prices (Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2011). The company has been offering book services for close to 25 years, it began with the mail order catalogue in 1970. The company tested selling the books online in the late 1980s through Trintex, an early generation venue. Trintex was a joint venture between IBM & Sears. The company sold its books on the CompuServe in the mid-1990s and later it opened a full-fledged a book superstore on the America Online in 1997. Barnes & website ( was launched in May 1997. Presently, the company’s website is the largest store and it enables the customers to order a book regardless of the time and place. The consumers have access to millions of out-of-print and used book titles, music DVDs and CDs through Barnes & (Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2011). The company’s publishing has been expanded through the purchases of and Sterling Publishing in 2001 and 2003 respectively. In 2009, the company acquired Fictionwise, a company leading in eBook in the marketplace. The company has its headquarters in New Jersey; it was founded in 2000 by Scott and Steve Pendergrast. In July 2009, Barnes and Noble introduced the world’s

Monday, August 26, 2019

Worldly Philosophers by Robert Heilbroner Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Worldly Philosophers by Robert Heilbroner - Essay Example However, in civilized and advanced societies, the author asserts that this kind of cohesiveness found in primitive societies is missing. In addition, in modern societies fewer incentives exist for people to act in order to survive. This leads to a disfranchised society. Due to intricacy of modern society, small transformation in society could lead to social disarray. The author talks about the struggles in society that people undergo in order to survive (Heilbroner 19). Since we live in a capitalist society, the author argues that it is impossible to prevent some circumstances in capitalist. The overgrowing use of machines enhances high productivity of goods, which creates employment opportunities for workers to work in those industries. It will however be difficult to avoid the use of child labor to work within these industries. Huge gap of social inequalities has also continued to widen further as people become more selfish. The exploitation of the workers has constantly resulted i nto wars and crises, which has been difficult to prevent. The division between the owners of production and the workers meant there is likelihood of war eruption, which in this case is inevitable as a result, impairing the development of a capitalist economy (Heilbroner 21). With huge concentration on capital, whereby small retail units had to pave way for the enlargement of wide markets agriculturalists had to suffer. It should however be noted that this system of capitalist makes it very difficult to control the economic crises. Since markets are identified with money and exchange, Heilbroner asserts that this leads to the problem of equal allocation of resources because of scarce resources. He also states there is also the problem of economic efficient since resources produced are not allocated and distributed equally.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Persuading My parents Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Persuading My parents - Essay Example I made my parents believe that they could respect and trust me. The central point in using ethos was to make my parents that I was worth listening to, that I could understand life. I made them understand that I had the same reasoning as they did. Additionally, I used Pathos to persuade to my parent’s emotions. The language I chose to address my parents, and the diction appealed to their emotions to let me have the freedom I felt I deserved. I made them become empathetic of my situation, thus helping them grant me the freedom to do as permitted by my age. I used emotional appeal (pathos) of my parents by appreciating the love and support they had shown me throughout my life. I told them that they were the most important people in my life. I could never have a better care. I added that I thanked God for the wonderful parents He enabled me to have. I said it was my sincere hope and daily wish that I would be able to inch close to the superior support parenting they had shown me to their grandchildren. It is their splendid upbringing that I cited to be the foundation of the strides I had so far made in my life. While appealing to my credibility, ethos, I made them aware that I had just turned 21 years. I did not claim to be too big for their care. I told them that I knew and would always acknowledge the significant role they held in my life. I told them that they would forever be the anchor upon which my life would be secured (The English Club, 2009). I, however, requested that thy grant me a little more freedom than I got at that time. As far as I knew, the seemingly over-protection they were showing me was because of their sincere love for me. I told them I understood that they did not wish that any ugly incident would happen to me. However, at that juncture, I wished to confirm to them that I would not get into much trouble if a little more freedom would be granted by staying away from trouble as much as I have always

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Unit3 - Individual Project - Project starting, Planning, Executing and Essay

Unit3 - Individual Project - Project starting, Planning, Executing and Closing - Essay Example Sales department in the process requires additional personnel due to their extensive work in the organization. The hiring process however must be a competitive one so as to obtain the best brains that can participate in the market research and analysis. Therefore, the company will advertise for the positions and applications made through the human resource manager. Qualified candidates will be shortlisted and notified for the interviews date. The interviews are then done in phases through a panel selected by the company so that biasedness is minimized and every one given an equal chance in the job select (Cleland & Gareis, 2006). After the interviews, suited candidates are selected and taken under reviews again so that best out of the best can be determined before recruitment takes place. Sales department is quiet critical in the success of the company as it is the department that ensures revenues are conveyed in the organization. Its activities in the market determines what manufacturing department will produce since it establishes the equilibrium in supply and demand for the company (Hasen, 2012). Hence for any extra unit that the corporation will produce, sales department must work more hard for it to be sold in the market hence need for training of the personnel. The department is also concerned with identifying the market niche of the various markets so as to establish new customers to the company’s product and its development to increase productivity and revenues to the firm while acquiring a bigger market share to the company. This can only be achieved by well trained personnel in the modern science so that they can undertake an extensive research on issues and have a broader knowledge of the market segmentations and operations. (Mathur, 2006) To achieve this, the personnel must be trained to be well equipped with the research methodologies as the success of the company achieving the goals and objectives solely lies with the sales department and

Friday, August 23, 2019

European Union and Human Rights Watch Research Paper

European Union and Human Rights Watch - Research Paper Example The European Union (EU) is one of the many institutions created with the solid intent of promoting and fostering peace among the constituent members and the world in general. The EU has led to the achievement of many goals and missions among them protection of sovereignty of the member countries, enhancing economic status of the member states, promoting democracy and literacy in the member states. EU has also fostered and as well as establishing adaptable regional and international relation of the member countries and outside world. The ideas that led to the formation and establishment of the European Union (EU) emerged in the early 1940s (Briney). The main idea was to reduce the series and cases of wars that involved individual European nations and to steer the constituent countries towards positive social-economic and political growth. It is important to reckon that the existence of small institutional relations otherwise called alliances, which consisted of friendly EU nations, wa s the main escalator and stimulator of the World War II that rocked the continent. The purpose of the alliances was to help create a protective shell developed on pacts signed by friendly nations to assure military, political and economic support upon external attacks and threats against any member. Alliances defined the political organization of the European states during and immediately after the end of World War I. However, this changed during and after the World War II as states settled to deliberate and solve differences that spurred conflicts among them. The first step was the unification of the coal and steel industries under the umbrella of European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). This organization became operational upon the signing of the Paris Treaty in 1951 under the chairmanship of Robert Schuman, who was French minister for foreign affairs. Upon formation, ECSC consisted of six member countries namely, France, Belgium, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, and West Germany. In collectivity, the member states exercised control over the steel and coal industries, which produced ammunitions among other things (Dimitrakopoulos 13). The year 1957 saw the signing of yet another important pact named the Rome Treaty. Rome Treaty led to the creation and establishment a common market known as the European Economic Community (EEC). The main reason behind signing and commencement of the EEC was to unify the Eastern and Western fronts that tended to be at war. EEC could therefore help spread diversity across the contradicting fronts as people moved and traded freely across the member states that included the initial six members of ECSC (Dimitrakopoulos 14). During the same year of 1957, and still in Rome, was the signing of another treaty that led to the creation of the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or EURATOM). The three organizations that included the ECSC, EEC and the EAEC reduced to what was the European Communities. According to Carbaugh, the need to consolidate the operations of the three organizations under single commission and council attracted a meeting in Brussels that led to the eventual signing of the Treaty of Merger in 1965 (7). Denmark, United Kingdom and Ireland joined the European Communities in 1973, raising the number of members to nine. The increasing

Principles Of American Bible Society Research Paper

Principles Of American Bible Society - Research Paper Example The virtues are not values like honesty or loyalty that one recites in grade school. These virtues mentioned in Galatians are the hallmarks of maturity that one should seek when looking for a spiritual mentor. For one, the aforementioned virtues are not deliberately adopted by a person to become his personal virtue since it is the Spirit that implants these virtues within a person. Looking at the background of these verses, these virtues were listed to serves as concrete examples that contrasts the acts of the flesh such as â€Å"envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings† (Gal.5:21). It is also significant to state that â€Å"the flesh lusteth against the Spirit† (v.17). which explains that since people are made of flesh, it is natural for humans to lust for vices like wine, gossip, money, or illicit sex. But, when a person has spiritually matured, he has struggled over this vices and starts exhibiting the virtues mentioned. What makes these virtues grow? Walking in faith with God makes these virtues thrive within ourselves. Therefore, when one is a matured Christian he or she manifests the virtues in his way of life. It is conclusive to say then that a Christian who has attained spiritual maturity will reflect these virtues in his daily affairs whether it be at work, or at leisure time. Among the virtues that were listed as fruits of the Spirit, I chose love, joy, and peace. I consider them as hallmarks of maturity since they are the basic foundation of all virtues yet they are the hardest to cultivate when one does not walk in God’s word. The first virtue is love which is known as â€Å"agape† in Greek. This love2 is as â€Å"agape† refers to brotherly love that should exhibit mercy and benevolence.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Texas Science Scholars program Essay Example for Free

Texas Science Scholars program Essay Mrs. Page, I would like you to know that I do not consider English as one of my strongest subjects; however, I still am excited to be in this class. From what I can tell, your particular style of instruction will definitely be helpful towards my education in literature. I feel you are someone who can help me to better myself in writing. My name is Michael Cortinas. I will be majoring in Computer Science and I am currently part of the Texas Science Scholars program. I enjoy reading, but struggle when it comes to writing on a designated prompt. In high school, I was part of both the varsity track, and cross-country team. Before college, I would run two or three miles every morning, but, because all my classes take place in the morning, I haven’t had time. I have been working part-time at H-E-B for nearly a year now, where I do anything from cashier to push carts. I currently live with my mother, step-father, and three younger siblings, meaning most of my homework will be done on campus. When it comes to college, I hope to obtain the skills necessary to become an impact in my community and in the lives of those close to me. I feel if I can get enough from college, I can be the type of person that people feel confident in putting their trust and coming to for advice. I guess this desire was inspired my great-grandfather, who passed away last year. He was someone that everyone felt comfortable confiding in and always seemed to know just what to say. Your class, being one that works with word choice, is a great start towards this goal. I feel that I am going to enjoy your class and all it has to offer.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Investigation of Food Poisoning Outbreak

Investigation of Food Poisoning Outbreak Christian Nehme INTRODUCTION An investigation of a food poisoning outbreak requires some knowledge into what food poisoning is and some common culprit bacteria which trigger such outbreaks. Food poisoning, also known as foodborne illness, is the name for the range of illnesses caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or drink. Food poisoning occurs in two main ways: poisoning by toxic agent or by infectious agent. Food intoxication is when the food contains toxins, usually occurring when the organism that produced the toxin is no longer present or able to cause infection. Food infection, on the other hand, is when the food contains bacteria which infect the body after it is eaten. Foodborne illness is quite common, affecting almost 5.5 million Australians each year. Two common food poisoning causing bacteria are B.cereus vs S. aureus. Bacillus species are Gram positive, aerobic heterotrophs, with the ability to form resistant spore coats. Do they have similar symptoms, toxins? cases in Australia. Description of Scenario As a special treat paid for by the Department of Health and Aging, 435 pensioners were taken on a catered summer’s day harbour cruise. Later that day, a number of the participants became very ill. The food was prepared on shore and brought onto the boat that day, The boat left Circular Quay at around 10am and cruised around Sydney Harbour past Watsons Bay, into Darling Harbour and disembarking at Circular Quay at 3pm.. The water was rather calm and there was a medium breeze. Local hospitals and ambulances were mobilized to respond to the outbreak. It also came to the attention of the local PHU and their personnel were able to retrieve some remnant food and patient specimens from the scene and hospitals. Questionnaires were distributed to the guest list once this was obtained by the local PHU and the NSW Food Authority. Of the questionnaires sent out, 339 were returned providing the following information. Symptoms Of the total number who were sick, 153 suffered severe diarrhoea; 139 vomited; 122 experienced abdominal cramps; 117 said that they felt nauseous; 11 complained of numbness in the arms and legs; and 3 developed haematuria. Thankfully no deaths were recorded as a consequence of this outbreak. Reported details on illness, and what was eaten and not eaten were compiled into Food Attack Tables. RESULTS Number of individuals who attended the cruise:435 Number of questionnaires returned:339 Number of individuals who suffered diarrhea: 153 Number of individuals who suffered vomiting: 139 Number of individuals who suffered abdominal cramps: 122 Number of individuals who suffered nausea: 117 Number of individuals who suffered numbness in arms / legs: 139 Number of individuals who suffered haematuria: 139 Number of deaths: 0 The incubation periods of the sick individuals (number of cases) are displayed in Figure 1. The food-specific attack rates for foods thought to be implicated are shown in Table 1. Figure 1: Epidemic curve presenting incubation periods of sick pensioners aboard the harbour cruise. Results obtained from responses to a questionnaire. Onset times appear as two distinct peaks, one occurring between 2-3 hours and the other between 6-15 hours, after consuming lunch. Data Calculated Percentage morbidity: (219 x 100) / 339 = 64.6% Percentage mortality: (0 x 100) / 339= 0.0% Percentage case fatality rate: (0 x 100) / 219= 0.0% Average incubation period: = 9.9 Hours Table 1: Food-specific Attack rates using data from questionnaire and other calculations including the Odds Ratio, Chi squared and Confidence Interval for each food type. Odds Ratio: An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates a higher risk of becoming risk on eating that particular food type. In Table 1 above, all meats have an odds ratio less than 1, and only Rice Pudding with Custard has an odds ratio greater than 1. Confidence Interval: the Odds Ratio is within a 95% confidence level if the CI does not include 1. From Table 1, Roast Lamb is the only food not within a 95% confidence level, whilst the 3 other food types are within a 95% confidence level. Chi-Squared: Ho = the sickness is not a result of any of the food consumed H1 = the sickness is a result of any of the food consumed When the P-Value is less than 0.05 (non-significant), the null hypothesis can be rejected. Since the P-Value is less than 0.05 for the Chicken, Ham Rice Pudding, the null hypothesis can be rejected, indicating that the case of the sickness was due to the consumption of either one of, or a combination of these foods. Since the P-Value of the Roast Lamb is much greater than 0.05, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected, signifying that the consumption of the Roast Lamb was most probably not a cause of the sickness. % Ill (Attack Rate): this is a measurement of correlation of the percentage of passengers who got sick and the total number who ate or did not eat a specific type of food. The correlation for Rice Pudding was the one to stand out, where only 20% of the passengers who did not eat rice pudding actually reported that they got sick. This is dramatically less than the other food types, which were above 60% each. Also, Rice Pudding had the highest attack rate of 57.8%. Flowchart of Experiment Food Swabs Cook’s Nose Swab Faecal Swab Results of Experiment DISCUSSION As evident from Figure 1, the number of cases are spread out from 2-21 hours after consuming lunch. There are 2 distinct peaks, occurring at 2-3 and 6-15 hours after consuming lunch. At this stage, a pathogen can possibly be the causative agent as it has shown to portray such symptoms on passing from the Upper Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the Lower GIT(Kho et al. 2011). These peaks can be linked with vomiting and diarrhoea, respectively. Of the commonly known pathogens, Bacillus cereus, a spore-forming pathogen, causes two distinct forms of foodborne effects: an emetic syndrome (vomiting-typified by an incubation period of 1–6 hours) and a diarrheal illness typified by an incubation period of 6–24 hours (Benenson AS, ed). Table 1 yields useful results which play a critical role in identifying the trigger organism for the outbreak. The attack rate for people who ate the different food types was the highest for Rice Pudding Custard (57.8%), although the other food types were closely behind, Roast Lamb being the closest at 56%. This is not enough information to be able to conclude the causative food type since the attack rate only ranges by 7%. This close range could be due to the fact that these food types were consumed in varying combinations, which makes it difficult to pinpoint the exact, single food at fault. This attack rate, however, can be combined with the attack rate of the pensioners who did not eat a particular food type, giving a clearer picture as to what the causative food source was. Rice Pudding Custard, having the lowest attack rate at just 20%, suggests that if it were not eaten, the chance of becoming ill is heavily less compared to the nearest food type, Roast Lamb, with an attack rate of 62.2%. This, combined with the high attack rate of pensioners who ate the Rice Pudding Custard, signals it to be the culprit source of pathogens. The odds ratio of Rice Pudding Custard, being 5.47, is significantly greater than other food types (which are all less than 1), suggesting that the risk of becoming ill upon consumption is 5.47 times greater than if Rice Pudding weren’t consumed. Furthermore, since the P-Value is less than 0.05 for the Chicken, Ham Rice Pudding, the null hypothesis can be rejected (that the sickness is not a result of any of the food consumed). This indicates that the case of the sickness was due to the consumption of either one of, or a combination of these foods. Since the P-Value of the Roast Lamb is much greater than 0.05, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected, signifying that the consumption of the Roast Lamb was most probably not a cause of the outbreak. However, the Confidence Interval for Rice Pudding Custard lies within a 95% confidence level, further supporting the claim that the Rice Pudding Custard was the causative food source. Knowing the possible food source which triggered the outbreak, and having an idea that the causative organism behind the outbreak was B. cereus (due to the two peaks correlating to the typical symptoms), laboratory investigations were then conducted to conclude what the exact organism was. The first test conducted was inoculating each food sample onto a PEMBA plate. The results varied as to the PEMBA count (cfu/g), possibly due to experimental error. However, Rice Pudding had the highest consistent overall count, with 8.5 x106 and 7.9 x 106 cfu/g. The colonies that grew on the PEMBA plates for the Chicken, Ham and Roast Lamb were small, yellow colonies, measuring approximately 1-2mm each, indicating the possibility of Gram Positive Cocci. The Rice Pudding, however, displayed large (4-5mm), matt blue colonies with a halo of precipitate. The PEMBA isolate for the Rice Pudding were Gram Positive Rods, occurring in chains with an oval central spore. The lipid granule test was positive an d catalase positive, with motile cells. Since none of the other food types PEMBA isolates showed GPR, no further testing was conducted on Chicken, Ham and Roast Lamb. Salmonella, Enterococcus and Shigella may have been possible pathogenic causing bacteria which contributed to the outbreak. In order to eliminate or support this possibility, a Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) plate was used. Faecal swabs of the sick pensioners who had eaten a particular food type were inoculated onto the XLD media. The only differentiating outcome was the appearance of the colonies of the faecal sample from people who consumed the Rice Pudding Custard, were slightly larger than those for the other food types. No definitive conclusion can be made from this. Faecal swabs were also plated on PEMBA plates and inoculated into the XLD media. The PEMBA plates displayed small, yellow Gram Positive Cocci colonies for the Chicken, Ham Roast Lamb specimens. The Rice Pudding Custard however, displayed large, Gram Positive Rods, which appeared as large, blue, matte colonies when sub-cultured onto the PEMBA plates. This further supports the finding that B.cereus was the causat ive organism. The next step is to eliminate any possibility that the pathogen Staphylococci spp had any part to play, or to confirm that it did. To do this, the Cook’s nose swab was inoculated on Blood Agar (BA) to stablish haemolysis and on Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA), as a selective mechanism for salt-tolerant microorganisms such as Staphylococcus or Enterococcus. After testing, small, round, flat, ÃŽ ³ – haemolytic white colonies were seen on the Blood Agar, with the BA Isolate being Gram Positive Cocci, occurring in clusters and being catalase positive. Although this suggests the possible presence of a Staphylococci species, the MSA plate rendered small, white colonies with pink agar throughout. The pink agar confirms that the Mannitol was not fermented, which is an indicator that no Staphylococci species was present. Further proof for the non-existence of S.aureus was seen with the Latex test displaying no clumping. In order to confirm that B.cereus was the causative organism for the outbreak, further tests were conducted. These include gelatin positive, starch positive, casein negative, nitrate positive (no gas formed). The sample tested positive for Glucose VP. This means that glucose was broken down by the Rice Pudding specimen to form acetoin, and was evident through the dark red colour formed. B.cereus tested negative for the indole test, meaning it was unable to split indole from tryptophan (Wong, Chang Fan 1988). All these test results correspond with the presence of B. cereus and at this point, we are more confident that this is the causative organism. To test for purity, and to confirm that no other specimen influenced these results, a BHIA purity test was performed, which resulted with a pure result, meaning the listed test results were solely caused by the Rice Pudding Custard specimen. Through the results of the media growth and the results of the confirmatory tests conducted, it was determined that the causative food source was the Rice Pudding Custard, which contained a strain of B.cereus. This resulted through the Cook not cooking the Rice at the ideal temperature, and since the temperature used was hot enough to trigger the B.cereus to enter their vegetative state, but was not high enough to kill the B.cereus, this resulted in the widespread growth of the specimen. Accompanied with the fact that the rice was prepared the night before and the warmer environment in which the rice was kept for the period of time overnight were suitable conditions and promoted its growth, further accounts for the growth of B.cereus (Jesen et al. 2003). Outbreaks such as this could be avoided, and at least minimised if some precautions were taken by all those involved with the handling, making and consuming of foods. The following list outlines some main ways through which this can be achieved (Klietmann, W, 2002): Storage of hot food above 600C and cold food in the fridge below 40C Keeping cooked and raw food separated at all times, to avoid cross-contamination Using separate chopping boards and utensils for raw and cooked foods Improving hygiene such as washing hands before and after contact with food Utilising a heat process to destroy the vegetative cells and a rapid cooling process to prevent the spores from germinating Using appropriate cleaning and disinfection of contact surfaces of food, such as sodium hypochlorite based disinfectants Keep frozen foods frozen until used Cooked foods which won’t be consumed within an hour should be kept at temperatures below 10Â °C or above 50Â °C (Roberts, T.A) Experimental Method The main source of primary data was obtained from the questionaries. The accuracy of the answers to the questions asked has a direct influence on the results obtained, and on the findings extracted from the questionaries. Thus, if the questionnaires are completed accurately and in detail, the reliability of the results would increase and a higher potential in obtaining accurate leads as to which species were the triggers to the outbreak would be attained. However, out of the 435 pensioners who were on the cruise, only 339 questionnaires were completed and returned to the local PHU the NSW Food Authority. This leaves 96 unaccounted for pensioners, which would have aided and fastened the search for the possible trigger. These 96 absences could have been a result of the pensioners not wanting to give out personal information, not having an easy method of returning the questionnaires, and some pensioners may not have received the questionaries in the first place. This absence of 96 resp onses has a direct effect on the accuracy of the collected data from these questionnaires, as the data is only a sample of the population, and is not a complete reflection of all pensioners involved. Furthermore, more detailed questions could have been asked on the questionnaires which may have sped the process of identifying the relationship between the symptoms caused and the time of onset. Improvements with the data collection could have involved the collection of vomit and diarrhoea samples, which would have helped identify the pathogen early on in the investigation. API strips could have been used to aid in identifying the pathogen as fast as possible, as well as using advanced technological methods. Testing the venue of where the food was prepared further and analysing all possible contributions to the outbreak at the source by further investigating the cook, the staff involved, whether other foods were being prepared at the same time, the overall hygiene of the kitchen, pest related influences, and previous occurrences and whether any have occurred since. Continuous monitoring of all food preparation methods and staff involved since the occurrence will aid in preventing a reoccurrence. A stricter enforcement of an increased hygiene standard could be rolled out onto not only similar cruise companies, but also all kitchens and restaurants throughout Australia. The most feasible and economical method would be to allocate fortnightly swabs of the kitchen, staff, floors, equipment and food samples at all these food-related location, and be sent to relevant laboratories to be analysed and reported. A safety-tick program could be implemented which takes these results and businesses ca n display them, notifying customers that they conduct regular hygiene tests and have passed all tests, giving the customer piece of mind that their chances of getting food poisoning is less likely. REFERENCES Jenson, I Moir, C. J: In Foodborne Micro-organisms of Public Health Significance. A. D. Hocking et al. (editor) 6th edition. AIFST (NSW Branch) Waterloo NSW 2003. SAA: Australian Standard. Food Microbiology. Method 2.6: Examination for specific organisms – AS 1766.2.6, pp. D8-D12, 1991. Benenson AS, ed. Control of communicable diseases in man. 15th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 1990:177–8. Kho, M.F., Bellier, A., Balasubramani, V., Hu, Y., Hsu, W., Nielsen-LeRoux, C., McGillivray, S.M., Nizet, V. Aroian, R.V. 2011, The pore-forming protein Cry5B elicits the pathogenicity of Bacillus sp. against Caenorhabditis elegans, PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 12, p. e29122. Wong, H., Chang, M. Fan, J. 1988, Incidence and characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates contaminating dairy products, Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 54, pp. 699-702. Jesen, G.B., Hansen, B.M., Eilenberg, J. Mahillon, J. 2003, The hidden lifestyles of Bacillus ceresus and relatives, Environmental microbiology, vol. 5, pp. 631-40. Roberts, T. A.; Baird-Parker, A. C.; Tompkin, R. B. (1996). Characteristics of microbial pathogens. London: Blackie Academic Professional. p.24. Klietmann, W. and Ruoff, K. 2002. Bioterrorism: Implications for the Clinical Microbiologist. Amer. Soc. Micro. 14(2):364-381.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Educational Strategies for Students with Autism

Educational Strategies for Students with Autism Have a look at the following video which interviews a number of teachers about their work with autistic students. They explain some of the underlying differences in individuals with ASD and suggest strategies for increasing their success in the school setting. Make a note of some of the strategies that they mention. Are they strategies that you have seen used? Within the video there were several different strategies that were introduced, these ranged from individual approaches to work with the student as well as strategies that involved the whole class; not only the student with autism. Kurth and Mastergeorge (2010) comment that there are many teachers and paraeducators that do not have adequate training for students with autism, videos like this can be used as resources for these teachers. The video goes over these strategies and how teachers can integrate them into their classrooms daily. With how the video is set out, there are several teaching strategies that are explicitly talked about however there are also some that are only subtly mentioned or that you can see the teachers doing within the video. However, all these strategies; not just the ones that are explicitly mentioned, have their own places within the classroom to help the students not only succeed but feel comfortable within the classroom and school. The strategies that are mentioned explicitly within the video are; Priming, which is noted as how the teacher; or primary care giver or an aide, informs the student or class about something that is coming. Academic Modification, is explained as modifying lessons and/or activities to be suitable to the student. Home Base, listed as a place for the student to go to when they are needing time to calm down and collect their thoughts. Visual Support, describes the different visual aids that can be utilised within the classroom and outside of the classroom to support the students learning. Reinforcement, this was directly related to positive reinforcement of their behaviours within the classroom and to support personal growth. Although there were only five strategies that are explicitly mentioned within the video, each strategy had other strategies subtly mentioned within their field. Examples of the subtle strategies mentioned are: Priming: Creating classroom and school schedules for the students to follow, explaining to the class the lesson structure, and talking with the student about what anything that may be coming to prepare them. Academic Modification: Explicit teaching of different skills for the student, offering repetition of a certain skill for the student to master, goal setting, and individual learning plans. Visual Support: Seating arrangements for students needing to be closer to the visual aids, cue cards for students to refer to for additional support in the classroom or in social situations, and having the classroom labelled for students to know where everything is located. These strategies whilst on their own may help in individual situations, however when utilised all together, develop into a teaching approach that allows the student to receive optimal support from their teachers and other support staff. During my short time as a casual relief teacher and pre-service teacher I have been privileged enough to use these teaching strategies. These strategies come into practice daily, although I may go between schools these strategies are utilised within each school, however in their own way with subtle differences. Whilst I was teaching at a special school however, there was one classroom that has stood out for me where all 5 overarching strategies were used to a high level. This grade had 7 students ranging from the ages of 8 to 10 all with a mild to severe disorder, with ability levels ranging from mild intellectual disabilities to a student that cannot speak or write. This promoted one aspect that came in on a lesson to lesson basis; academic modification. How this was utilised was that the teacher had an individual learning plan for each student within the classroom and they all had their individual goals that they were aiming for in each lesson. Individual learning plans are intended to have goals and objectives that an individual student can make progress towards within an achievable timeframe, whilst providing an educational benefit (Kurth Mastergeorge, 2010). This became prominent in every lesson as it was separated into different tasks for each student however maintaining the overarching subject topic. Within this grade as well, was the use of priming and visual supports. This was through having a class schedule for each day in pictures that are displayed on a Velcro board. This had a list of pictures for each lesson described as a picture; such as writing had a writing book and pencil, and lunch had a sandwich, in a descending order for the students to look at to have an understanding what the day entails. When I was in the classroom as a relief teacher I would also follow this support with verbal explanations of how the day would go to additionally prime the students for the day. Although the students were already feeling anxious when I do come into their grade because it is a change of routine not having their teacher, through using these priming strategies I have been able to calm the students down enough to begin to feel comfortable with me there for the day. There is one strategy however that I have only seen small amounts of in schools; I was lucky to have the strategy used in this classroom, and that is the use of home base. How the support staff explained to me how the class used this strategy was that when a student is feeling anxious, stressed, aggravated, or distressed they had a soft calming room that they can go to so they can take themselves out of the situation. This was not able to be done on the students own will as they are unable to recognise this, however myself or the support staff would ask the student if they wanted some time in the room. This provided a safe secluded area for the student to calm down from whatever they were experiencing at the time.   I would personally enjoy to see more classes use this strategy as well as it noticeably had a positive effect on the student when they returned to the classroom. Although I may not have a grade of my own yet, using these strategies through relief teaching has improved my own teaching skills in relation to not only students with autism or students with disabilities, but all students. I would suggest that all teachers use these strategies within their daily routine as they have been proven to have a positive impact on the students. Search the WWW for more resources that relate to ABA or Applied Behaviour Analysis. You should search for videos as well as texts. Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) is an intervention process that uses positive reinforcement to work towards change in behavioural responses. Susan Dodd (2005) suggests that to optimise the ABA persons within it should have interventions for 40 hours per week for a duration of at least 2 years. Dodd (2005) also lists that the interventions be carried out by a team of trained people including that of supervisors, therapists, parents, and peers. This is supported by Granpeesheh et al (2009) in the findings that a within two groups of children; one receiving 40 hours of intervention the other receiving 10 hours, the group with 40 hours per week showed expediential improvements whereas the 10-hour group showed very little improvement. Matson (2012) also explains that the younger the child with autism is when they undertake ABA, they will receive greater benefits from the program than that of older children. What would positive reinforcement be like for a student with autism? All students with autism, all students in general, react to positive reinforcement differently. What one child may experience as positive reinforcement, another may see as the complete opposite. This suggestion is that when positive reinforcements are given, the student is first to be understood. For example, a child with hypersensitivity towards physical contact may take a high five to be a largely positive reinforcement. However, a child with hyposensitivity towards physical contact may see it as an annoyance as their feelings are different to the other child. Temple Grandin (2008) suggests that positive reinforcements be directed towards the childs interests, such as time on the computer; however, she suggests a laptop rather than a desk top as the laptop screens do not flicker in comparison to that of a desk top screen. Although you can have positive reinforcements such as a high five, verbal recognitions such as praising, or activities, when a reinforcement is specialised toward s the individual student a greater outcome can be obtained. An example is when I was teaching a 10-year-old boy in a local special school. I had already developed a relationship with this student at the school so he was comfortable around me within the classroom when his teacher was away. He had come into the school in an upset mood in the morning from an incident at home and whilst not seeing his regular teacher his mood did not improve. However, through building up prior knowledge on the child I knew that he has a very strong passion for Doctor Who. Luckily for me I had brought a book that I was going to surprise him with after I found out I had his grade for the day; my personal Doctor Who pop-up book. After seeing his attitudes, I used this book as positive reinforcement for him, if he could do some work for 10 minutes, he can read for a bit, then 15 minutes then he can read. This proved to not only calm him down as it was his interest, but he also was more productive within the classroom. This would not work on other students for a behav iour reinforcement however with this individual child it is within his interests and can be utilised. Why is it important to observe the consequences and repetition of behaviours? Reinforcers help students with autism build up and improve on their behaviours inside and outside of the classroom. These reinforcers can be positive, negative, and neutral; all of which will prompt different reactions from the student. However, it is imperative that the student be observed before and after the reinforcer is given in the aim to give the student the optimal reinforcer. Food reinforcers are common practice within schools and have been seen to be affective most the time; such as an extra piece of fruit for good behaviour or lunch with the principal. Although food reinforcers are good to utilise, there are many people that will rapidly eat; which can lead to choking or possibly death, and if not recognised will continue their unwanted behaviours to get more food (Matson, Turygin, Beighley, Rieske, Tureck, Matson, 2012). To prevent this from occurring teachers may utilise journals and/or notes on observing student behaviours to try and understand what the student is tryi ng to portray. Common behavioural traits of autistic children are repetitive behaviours these can include rocking, hand flapping, or spinning (Kluth Shouse, 2013). It is important to observe the repetition of behaviours as functional assessment can follow as a form of behavioural intervention. Matson (2012) describes that in a situation of repetitive stretching after observation and assessment treatment packages could be developed and resulted in the behaviours being effectively lessened. How can you calm a student with autism who is anxious and upset? To deliver appropriate calming strategies for a student with autism it is imperative that you first understand the student.   The effective way of getting to understand the student is through getting to know what their triggers are, what may cause this anxiety or upsetting moods. For example, if a student has low communication skills they may be anxious because they are unable to communicate if they require something such as food or trying to express their opinion on a situation. Ways that can be utilised in this situation can be helping the student communicate through alternate means; such as through hand motions, or through talking charts. An example of a student with autism whom I have taught whilst they were upset resulted in the student feeling uncomfortable with a blinking overhead light. Their hypersensitivity towards light resulted in them being upset towards the flickering light. Although I had quickly turned off the set of lights that the flickering one is in, the student remained upset and distressed. The way that I had calmed the student further was that I let the student go to a calming room, where they had access to different sensory items such as stress balls and beanbags (both large to sit on and small to hold); the student was there for about 5 minutes before they returned on their own accord. Through this removal from the situation, the student could calm down and eventually return to the classroom with prompting. Videos and Texts that can be used for teachers and primary care givers. This YouTube video is the beginning of a series of videos that involve different steps of ABA. This YouTube video is a university presentation that discusses ABA in an academic approach. Primary care givers may not have the time to research ABA for themselves, however teachers may link them to this YouTube video and website. Autism Speaks not only gives an overview of what ABA is but also how it is utilised in schools. The website also has further autism information for primary care givers to read. The book; Clinical and Organizational Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis by Roane, Ringahl and Falcomata (2015), is a useful resource for teachers to acquire a basic understanding of the applications of ABA in different situations, Roane, H., Ringdahl, J. E., Falcomata, T. S. (2015). Clinical and Organizational Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis. London: Elsevier Explain how stress and anxiety underpin sensory difficulties (hyper and hypo sensitivities). What strategies can be used to reduce anxiety and stress related to sensory issues. Stress and anxiety effect many people worldwide from children with sensory difficulties; hyper and hypo sensitives, up to fully able adults. Moree and Davis (2010) state that those on the autism spectrum range from 11% to 84% having anxiety disorders as well, averaging out to being 40-50%. Anxiety can be described as someone having excessive fear and avoidance in response to specific objects or different situations, whilst being absent of true danger (Shin Liberzon, 2010). Although anxiety is a known trigger of stress, it is not to be confused as being the sole trigger of stress; another primary trigger is trauma through social, emotional, physical, and psychological occurrences. People with hypersensitivity are understood to have strong emotional and physical reactions, heightened detections of stimuli, and having a heightened apprehension of the stimuli together with an unfocused or unselective attention (Elwin, Ek, Schrà ¶der Kjellin, 2012). This commonly relates back to vision, hearing, and touch (Elwin, Ek, Schrà ¶der Kjellin, 2012), however it also relates to smell and taste as well as can affect all senses. The National Autistic Society (2016) lists some examples in which hypersensitivity may occur: Visual: Can be distorted resulting in objects and bright lights appearing to jump around. Sound: Noise can become magnified to the person. Smell: Smells can be intense and overpowering. Taste: Foods and flavours can be found too strong and overpowering. Touch: Being touched or touching things may become painful or uncomfortable. Individuals that live with hypersensitivities towards different senses may become anxious when they are in different situations as the experiences that they have are predominantly negative. An interviewee by Elwin et al. (2012) mentions that the noise of other children around them was torment, they could not shut it out, it frightened them as well as wearing them out. If someone is experiencing this daily within a classroom, they will begin to associate the classroom with fear and torment, which will lead to having anxiety before entering the classroom and being stressed when they are in the classroom.   Another example given through an interview by Elwin et al. (2012) is that someone has a hypersensitivity in their vision, bright lights are not a good thing to them, they mention that there were times when they would go outside and the light from the sun would make them quite literally sick as well as having the same affect with flashing lights however they describe it as wors e. If this person is in a classroom with one of the lights flickering, which is common, it can cause them to feel anxious as it will be affecting them and from previous experiences they may relate it to being sick. Hyposensitivity is recognised as people that have no indistinct registration of stimuli, less discrimination and recognition of stimuli, and having strong cravings for specific stimuli (Elwin, Ek, Schrà ¶der Kjellin, 2012). These reactions were common to pain, proprioceptive, and interoceptive stimuli. The National Autistic Society (2016) lists some examples in which hyposensitivity may occur in visual, sound, smell, taste, and touch senses: Visual: May have poor depth perception, problems with throwing and catching, clumsiness. Sound: May only hear sounds in one ear, the other ear having only partial hearing or no hearing at all. Smell: Can have no sense of smell and fail to notice extreme odours; this may also include their own body odour. Taste: They may eat or mouth non-edible items such as stones, dirt, and metal. Touch: They may have a high pain threshold. Individuals that are living with hyposensitivity may not have the same anxieties and stresses as those of hypersensitivities however they will still have their own. An example by Elwin et al. (2012) is of one person who describes that he is unable to tell when they are hungry or thirsty and relies on the post symptoms of feeling sick or dizzy from being without food or water for too long. This can lead to stressors arising for when they are going places as they may feel that if they cannot tell when they are hungry or thirsty, theyll get sick or dizzy in public and can result in further issues. Temple Grandin (2008) elaborates that when someone has sensory issues they are to be addressed however not to be mistaken by behavioural issues. Grandin (2008) further explains that there are different accommodations that need be put in place to help people with these sensory issues. Different strategies related to both hyper and hyposensitive sensory issues suggested by Grandin (2008) as well as the National Autistic Society (2016) include: Visual: Wearing a hat inside or sunglasses inside to reduce the lighting in the room. Using a laptop screen over other screens as they do not flicker Having incandescent lights rather than fluorescent. Doing different balancing games such as using a ball to sit on. Having dull coloured paper rather than white. Sound: Wearing headphones or earplugs for half the day, Grandin (2008) suggests not the entire day as no improvements will be made. Using visual supports as teaching tools such as visual outlines of the day. Minimal usage of verbal instructions. Priming people before going to a loud area. Smell: Creating routines in hygiene such as regular times for bathing / washing. Creating a routine of having deodorant or body spray applied to the person with hyposensitivity. Using unscented shampoos for people with hypersensitivity. Creating fragrance-free environments. Taste: Developing dietary programs in relation to having food that is either blander for hypersensitive people or having strong flavours for hyposensitive people. Touch: Limit physical contact. Preparations prior to any physical contact such as telling people that you are going to hug them. Turning clothes inside out to prevent the seam from rubbing. Constrictive clothing for hyposensitive responses. Squeeze machine sessions. If strategies such as these are implemented the environmental and social factors relating to the sensory issues will be reduced, which in result will further bring down anxiety and stress levels within hyper and hyposensitive people. Although it may not entirely remove anxiety and stress, it will help lessen the symptoms to create a more comfortable environment. Reference List: Autism Speaks. (2015). Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA). Retrieved from Autism Speaks. (2008, September 8). Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) [Video File]. Retrieved from Dodd, S. (2005). Understanding Autism. Sydney: Elsevier. Elwin, M., Ek, L., Schrà ¶der, A., Kjellin, L. (2012). Autobiographical Accounts of Sensing in Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 26(5), 420-429. Grandin, T. [University of California Television (UCTV)]. (2008, February 7). My Experience With Autism [Video File]. Retrieved from Granpeesheh, D., Dixon, D. R., Tarbox, J., Kaplan, A. M., Wilke, A. E. (2009). The Effects of Age and Treatment Intensity on Behavioral Intervention Outcomes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(4), 1014-1022. Kluth, P, Shouse, J. (2013). The Autism Checklist. Hoboken: Wiley. Kurth, J., Mastergeorge, A. (2010). Individual Education Plan Goals and Services for Adolescents With Autism: Impact of Age and Educational Setting. The Journal of Special Education., 44(3), 146-160. Matson, J. L, Turygin, N. C., Beighley, J, Rieske, R, Tureck, K, Matson, M. L. (2012). Applied behavior analysis in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Recent developments, strengths, and pitfalls. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(1), 144-150. Moree, Davis. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders: Modification trends. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(3), 346-354. Roane, H., Ringdahl, J. E., Falcomata, T. S. (2015). Clinical and Organizational Applications of Applied Behavior Analysis. London: Elsevier Shin, L., Liberzon, I. (2010). The Neurocircuitry of Fear, Stress, and Anxiety Disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology., 35(1), 169-191. The National Autistic Society. (2016). Sensory Differences. Retrieved From The Organization for Autism Research. [ResearchAutism]. (2013, March 7).Understanding Autism: A Guide for Secondary School Teachers (Part 2) [Video File]Retrieved from Wiley, M. [Matt Wiley]. (2012, February 7). ABA Autism Training Chapter 1 The Discrete Trial [Video File]. Retrieved from Wiseman, E. [HopeNetworkServices]. (2012, June 15). Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism Spectrum Disorders [Video File]. Retrieved from

Monday, August 19, 2019

Mangroves in Australia Essay -- Plants Botany Essays

Mangroves in Australia The mangrove communities of Australia are some of the most highly adaptive plant communities in the world. These plants live in an environment that is often engulfed with seawater. This environment is considered an arid environment due to the lack of fresh water. The plants of the mangrove community must develop several adaptations to deal with the environment. The environment these plants often inhabit is referred to as an intertidal zone. The intertidal zone is the transition between the salty ocean to the fresh water of the interior of the continent or island. To deal with the salty environment, mangrove plants have developed modified roots. In some species, the roots filter the incoming seawater. These modified roots also help to support the tree in the muddy substrate. The roots are considered a xeromorphic feature, a display feature that tends to conserve or retain water. These roots also provide oxygen intake by structures call pneumatophores. This ability is importa nt in times of low soil aeration. The leaves are covered with a waxy cuticle that helps retain water. In some species, the leaves are responsible for salt secretion, while others store excess salt in leaves until they fall off the tree. The mangrove species also have modified reproductive structures. Most seeds develop while still attached to the parent tree. This enhances their chance of survival. These seeds are also buoyant, which allows them to float to a less shady spot, away from the parent tree and start growing. Some species seeds shed their seed coat at particular water temperature and water salinity. Mangrove species produce different types of pollen for different plants. These different types of pollen ... ...e land (Maguire 2000). Mangroves are endangered by human development. Conservation and management techniques need to become an important issue to preserve these unique and highly advance communities. Summar The mangroves are some of the most highly evolved plant communities in the world. These plants have overcome the harsh conditions from which they live in. One of the most obvious adaptations is the modified root structures that not only help support the plant in the muddy substrate, but may aid in oxygen intake in some species. Another notable adaptation that mangrove plants exhibit is their modified reproductive structures called propagules. These seeds actually begin development while still attached to the parent tree. Mangroves also provide important services such as filtering out toxins in outgoing streams that would normally damage coral reefs.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Mark Twains Pessimistic Views Exposed in The Adventures of Huckleberry

Mark Twain's Pessimistic Views Exposed in Huckleberry Finn      Ã‚   In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain simply wrote about a boy and the river. In doings so Twain presents the reader with his personal view of mankind, whether he wants to or not:      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Persons attempting to find a motive in this narrative   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   will be prosecuted; persons attempting to find a moral in   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   it will be banished; persons attempting to find a plot   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   will be shot. (2)    Possibly by giving us this warning Twain admits to the existence of a clear motive, morality, and a strong plot in his masterpiece. Nonetheless, Huckleberry Finn, through examples of hypocrisy, greed, violence, and racism, shows Twain's pessimistic view of society and corruption of the human race as a whole.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To understand the pessimism of the book, we must first understand Huck. Huck is a character though whose eyes we see the ugly truth about mankind. Huck is always on the run from people. In the beginning we see him living a prim and proper life with the widow. He is then abducted by his father, and for a time is relieved to get out of the moral trappings of the town, and live sloppily, doing whatever he wanted to do. "It was kind of lazy and jolly, laying off comfortable all day." (24) After some time, and being unable to endure the abuse of his father, he runs away. Huck is as dissatisfied by one extreme as he is by the next. Huck   chooses not to take sides on any matter, but instead be indifferent towards it. Huck avoids moral decision making throughout the book as much as possible. In the end of the book Twain saves Huck... ...and subsequently the evil and corruption synonymous with it, must follow.    Works Cited Carey-Webb, Allen.   "The Pessimistic Huckleberry Finn."   English Journal   82   (November 1993):   22-34.   Clemens, Samuel.   Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.   The Heath Anthology of American Literature.   Ed. Paul Lauter, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 2.   Lexington:   Heath, 1994.   236-419.   Hoffman, Daniel.   "Black Magic--and White--in Huckleberry Finn."   Adventures of Huckleberry Finn:   An Authoritative Text Backgrounds and Sources Criticism.   Ed. Sculley Bradley, et al.   2nd ed.   New York:   Norton, 1977.   423-436.   Kaplan, Justin.   "Born to Trouble:   One Hundred Years of Huckleberry Finn."   Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn:   A Case Study in Critical Controversy.   Eds. Gerald Graff and James Phelan.   Boston:   St. Martin's, 1995.   348-359.     

Essay --

Change management Change is constant, integral part of our personal and professional lives. Change occurs in our world and beyond, at national and global level, in political and socio-economical areas, in management of organisations. As the contemporary world becomes more complicated and significantly interrelated, it forces companies to change their work strategies and become globally competitive (Jeritt, 2013). These pressures for change should be identified by management and immediately enact change management process to increase productivity and performance (Marked By Teachers, 2004). Achievement of such objectives is paramount for organisations; despite of challenges which may originate during implementation of changes (Content Writing, 2012). According to Techopedia (2013): ‘Organisational Change Management is a framework structured around the changing needs and capabilities of an organization. OCM is used to prepare, adopt and implement fundamental and radical organizational changes, including its culture, policies, procedures and physical environment, as well as employee roles, skills and responsibilities.’ Kotter (2009) defines change management as the utilization of basic structures and tools to control any organizational change effort. Today for implementation and monitoring changing process are known plenty of different models. It will be analyzed and evaluated most common models which are Lewin's Change Management Model, ADKAR model and Kotter's Eight Step Change Model. Each model provide particular approach with own advantages and disadvantages therefore it’s significantly important to clearly understand each of the three change management models (Cellars, 2007). Lewin's Change Management Model Kurt Lewin presente... ...tion. Organisational culture provides as opportunities as well as issues for companies. If culture combines with organization’s strategic and operating targets, it can stimulate improvement of performance and efficiency. At the same time dissimilarity of organisation culture and targets may lead for pernicious results (Katzenbach Center, 2013). Thus, organisational culture affects practically on all aspects of the company and it’s exceptional for every organisation and also one of the arduous objects to change (Business Dictionary, 2013. Hence, applying of culture within organisation include analysis of complex of features as beliefs, ideologies and values of company. According to Investopedia (2013) organisational culture define as: ‘The beliefs and behaviors that determine how a company's employees and management interact and handle outside business transactions’.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Business Strategy Kerry Group Essay

In 1972 Kerry Group started its operation in Listowel, Co. Kerry. In 1974 Kerry Group has been formally established as Kerry Cooperative Creameries Limited in County Kerry, Ireland. The company grew in less than 30 years from this small provincial dairy for one of the world leaders in specialty food ingredients producers and distributors. During the 1970s, the company expanded to include a large number of dairy farms and processing plants in the counties of Cork, Killarney, Galway and Limerick. Between 1979 and 1985, Kerry has built a lot of confidence in their abilities and technologies. During the 1980s the business strategy of the organization was based on organic growth with a focus on diversification. With that Kerry began branching out from its core dairy products in other categories of food. The company had its growth through acquisitions including a number of manufacturing facilities and other food processing, located throughout Ireland and Northern Ireland. In 1986 with Denis Brosnan as chief executive, the cooperative decided to become a full-fledged company, listing its shares on the Irish Stock Exchange. The newly public company reported strong growth after its first  full year of operations, with revenues nearing IR £ 300 million, and net profits of nearly IR £ 6.3 million. Before the end of the decade Brosnan managed to double the sales of the company maintaining its Expansion in Ireland with the acquisition of 1986 Snowcream Moate Dairies, and the formation of a division of convenience foods, bringing the company into this increasingly prominent market. Alongside this movement was the intensification of business Kerry special ingredients. At the same time, Kerry also established presence in the United States, the opening of a processing facility dairy product, Jackson, Wisconsin in 1987. In the 1990s Kerry Group continued to expand its business into the UK from the acquisition of new businesses to the already existing portfolio company. Kerry’s acquisition drive continued into the late 1990s, bringing the company into France, Italy, Poland, Malaysia, Brazil. Two important acquisitions highlighted Kerry’s expansion. The first came in 1994 when the company acquired the business of food processing DCA, bringing the company to a position outstanding among North America’s specialty ingredients producers. The DCA purchase also introduced it to the Australian and New Zealand markets. The opportunity for renewed expansion came in February 1998, when the Kerry Group announced its agreement to purchase the food ingredients businesses of the U.K.’s Dalgety PLC. Kerry acquired Dalgety Food Ingredients’ plants in the United Kingdom and in Hungary and the Netherlands–new markets for Kerry well as plants in France, Italy, and Germany. The Dalgety acquisition firmly established Kerry as the top specialty ingredients producer in Europe, and one of the world’s leaders in its specific categories. Kerry was now turning its attention to two new markets: the Far East and South America both markets represent a huge potential new customer, both for the company’s products and food brands, and products for their  ingredients. Company’s initial forays into these markets include acquisitions of plants in Malaysia and Brazil, while the company predicted that these markets are reaching some 25 percent of the company’s revenue at the beginning of the next century. Strategic Levels According to Porter & Porter in Montgomery (1998) corporate strategy is the general plan for a diversified company, which has two levels of strategy: the strategy of the business unit (or competitive), and corporate strategy (or entire corporate group). To Christensen in Fahey & Randall (1999), corporate strategy is one that is concerned with three major issues to be faced by the managers of the corporation: 1. The corporate scope: that complex business corporation should attend? 2. The relationship between its parts: on what basis the business units of the corporation should relate to each other? 3. Methods for managing the scope and relationships: that specific methods – acquisitions, strategic alliances, divestitures, and others – will be adopted to effect specific changes in corporate scope and relationships?

Friday, August 16, 2019

Regulations and Policies in Europe Essay

How does it fit within the ideas of Hayek and Keynes? Use the stagflation of the 70s as an example. The post–World War II the postwar economic boom, also known as economic expansion, the long boom, and the Golden Age of Capitalism, and the Age of Keynes in western countries after the end of World War II in 1945. It was a high worldwide economic growth in Western European that had been devastated by the war such as unusually high and sustained growth, together with full employment. By the end of World War II, much of Europe was devastated. The region’s trade flows had been disrupted. Food shortages were severe in all over the Europe. The 1930’s Great Depression in Europe production had fallen far below even than usual for the entire decade due to failure of market forces to restore demand to normal levels. Hence, the biggest panic after WWII was the return of the Great Depression during 30s. After the war, the major powers were determined not to repeat the mistakes of the Great Depression. Governments might have been slow to dismantle wartime allocation controls, and so have severely constrained the market mechanism. However, Politicians were predisposed toward intervention and regulation, their principle was: no matter how damaging â€Å"government failure† might be to the economy, it had to be better than the â€Å"market failure† of the Depression. After WWII, the slightest regulations and policies are derived from The Keynesian Economy. Keynesian economists claim that the boom was caused by the adoption of Keynesian economic policies, particularly government spending. The basic idea of Keynesian thinking was to have pure free market policies rather than the mixed economy which require a significant role for government intervention. Efforts against Keynesianism took place on three fronts – in the academic world, in politics, and in the wider world of business and public opinion. In Keynes’s theory, in contrast to the previously accepted view, an economic depression might continue indefinitely unless government spending, financed by a budget deficit, were increased sufficiently. In 1948 the Marshall Plan was implemented to rebuild and modernize Western Europe. The Coal and Steel Community had which was to become the European Union lately. The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was a program occurred in United States to aid Europe as the US. gives monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of WWII in order to have a force over Soviet communism. The plan was for four years. The goals of the Marshall Plan were to remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and provide Europe to be strong again. Plan pumped over $12 billion to rebuild and modernize Western Europe. Keynesian economics period also accepted as financial repression. With these Keynesian policies such as low nominal interest rates and low or negative real interest rates and government policy, especially the US and UK both dealt with their existing government debt level from Great Depression and World War II and reduce the level of debt in the debt service without needing to direct a high portion of government spending. All of the success was coming from free market economies. After the death of President Roosevelt, a conservative control of Congress took place and try to turn the policies into Libertarian policies by rejecting numerous Keynesian initiatives, dropped many price controls, and instead cut taxes sharply. These libertarian policies are believed to have been stimulated the economy and created near full employment. During the whole period, especially Hayek was against Keynes at some points. He and a group occurred from other journalists and intellectuals had planned to displace Keynesianism and other collectivist influences. Hayek complained about economists to refuse to allow his work to be questioned after his death, it almost became a tabu. According to Friedrich von Hayek, the development of welfare socialism after World War II undermined freedom and would lead western democracies inexorably to some form of state-run serfdom so that socialism was also affecting Europe negatively. For the institutions Bretton Woods system was used after WWII until 1970s. The Bretton Woods system was history’s first example of a fully negotiated monetary order. It is an international regime which was designed to combine binding legal obligations with multilateral decision-making, which is conducted through an international organization, like the IMF, endowing money with some limited supranational authority. In 1971, The Bretton Woods system collapsed due to President Richard Nixon’s severed the link between the dollar and gold. Another policy which is used after WWII was Military Keynesianism, which sighted to devote a large amount of money spending to the military to increase the economical growth of the countries.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Definition essay: Trust Essay

Definition Essay: Trust What is trust? The dictionary meaning of trust is a firm belief in the reliability, truth, ability, or strength of someone or something. The second meaning is, confidence placed in a person by making that person the nominal owner of property to be held or used for the benefit of one or more others. But what can we really define as trust? In this paper, I will discuss how trust is used every day in different situations, how we deal with trust in various relationships, and how we as individuals practice trust within ourselves. There are many different kinds of examples of trust. Some include, trust in your family, trust in your friends, and trust in someone special to you. An example of trust in your family is trusting your mom to pick you up from school when you we’re a codependent child, or trusting your older brother or older sister to have your back when someone picks on you at school. Trust in family also includes trusting your parents to provide for you in all aspects, making you feel like a secure and stable child. Trust goes as far as friendships. You want friends who you can count on, tell your deepest secrets too, and be able to confide in everything with. As a child I had two best friends who meant the world to me and who I felt I can tell anything too. These girls we’re both my next-door neighbors who I have known now for thirteen years. As a child, you make a variety of friends and every new friend you make you can call your best friend because there is innocence and excitement there when having someone new come into your life. Part of growing up is realizing who your true friends are. Who your life-long friends will be and eventually never relate to those temporary friends you made again. Another example, high school is a time where you can make so many friends before you head off to college. In high school you might face drama that could cause you to lose trust in someone you thought would always have your trust. That is when you realize that in times of trouble and disappointment, the friends that have known you for many years will always be there to comfort you. We put our trust in people that we have turned our backs on to take us back once again when we need them, even if we do not deserve that type of treatment. Trust comes and goes and you experience that in many relationships, but we as people have to learn not to hold someone up  on a pedestal and accept whatever flaws and baggage that anyone has, because we ourselves carry some of those things as well. When it comes to a relationship with someone you are dating, trust is an essential element to have. When you meet someone for the first time, you can trust them because you haven’t experienced something that tests the trust between you both. When getting into a serious relationship, you experience the good times and the bad times. When the tough times come, you want to be able to confide in that special person to help you through it and lift you up when you are feeling down. Trust comes and goes as you get to know someone and grow closer and closer into a relationship with them. As easy as it is to trust someone, it is easier to lose it. Owners of companies, managers, chief executive officers; these are people that employees apart of a company put their trust in every day. The top head of any company or business is looked upon as a leader and a trustworthy peer who you put your trust in to lead your business or company to success. As a person working under someone who is owner and chief of a business it is also my part to help the business grow and work hard to bring success into the business as well. Therefore, the top head of any company puts trust in his or her employees to get the job as well. Putting trust in God is another example of trust. This is a type of trust that is very complex. Non-believers do not seem to understand how we can put our trust into someone we cannot see. With faith comes trust, and as we grow in our faith, trusting comes a lot easier every day. We put our trust in the Bible and trust that everything that is said in it is true. This is a form of trust that is different than trusting people who you have earthly relationships with. We often confide in different passages and scriptures in the Bible to see examples of how we should trust God. One example of trust in the Bible is the story of Joseph. Joseph was sold into slavery by his own brothers, who he trusted, and became sold to Potiphar, the official in Pharaohs household. After being thrown into prison by Potiphar for being accused for raping Potiphar’s wife, he worked hard and became in charge of the prisoners. Pharaoh then had a dream, and the dream could only be interpreted by Joseph because God blessed him with that gift. After interpreting the dream, he became in charge of all of Egypt under pharaohs command. Joseph’s brothers traveled to Egypt to buy food, and there he revealed himself to his brothers and they apologized to him for  what they did to him. Josephs forgave them and sent for his father Jacob and the rest of his people. Then they all came to Egypt and settled in a land pharaoh gave them. Joseph had saved the twelve tribes of Israel, Gods chosen people. Joseph trusted God no matter how bad the situation became. This is an example of how we as Christians put faith first and learn to trust God through these stories of how he reveals himself faithfully. The last type of trust I want to talk about is self-trust. We as people believe the lies we tell ourselves of not being able to do certain things. When we learn to trust ourselves and our capabilities we can go above and beyond our expectations. That is a type of trust that we learn to accept as we go through tough times and seek for inward confidence. Believing and being able to trust yourself in every situation is the k ey to a life of prosperity. Trusting yourself could be good or bad in some cases. Trusting yourself could be bad if you know what your weaknesses are or how strong your will-power is. For example, if you have to be somewhere at a specific time, and you say to yourself, â€Å"I have 30 minutes, I’ll be fine† but in reality you know by just knowing yourself that you should’ve been on the way a long time ago, could be used as a poorly self-trusting act. Trusting yourself in situations where you could make a big mistake by doing something you’re not supposed to and walking away from a problem, is an example of a good use of self-trust. To bring my essay to a close, I would like to end with my conclusion of the definition of trust as an essential asset in any significant relationship you face in order to help it grow. Trust is a form of a test in how we evaluate individuals and determine who we can confide in. Lastly, trust in one-self is important for our well-being as humans and exploring and realizing all our capabilities and possibilitie s in life. I would like to end my paper with a quote from Corrie ten Boom that says, â€Å"Never be afraid to trust an unknown future to a known God.† I hope you enjoyed reading my paper and took away with you a deeper understanding of what trust is.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Christianity in the Philippines

The Philippines proudly boasts to be the only Christian nation in Asia. More than 86% of the population is Roman Catholic, 6% belong to various nationalized Christian cults, and another 2% belong to well over 100 Protestant denominations. In addition to the Christian majority, there is a vigorous 4% Muslim minority, concentrated on the southern islands of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan. Scattered in isolated mountainous regions, the remaining 2% follow non-Western, indigenous beliefs and practices. The Chinese minority, although statistically insignificant, has been culturally influential in influencing Filipino Catholicism with many of the beliefs and practices of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism (Miller, Religion in the Philippines) Politically speaking, laws in the country give all Filipinos the right to choose their own religion based to what their faith believes accordingly. Filipinos choose Christianity as their religion. Why is it so? Christianity is the name given to that definite system of religious belief and practice which was taught by Jesus Christ in the country of Palestine, during the reign of the Roman Emperor, Tiberius, and was promulgated, after its Founder's death, for the acceptance of the whole world, by certain chosen men among His followers. At present, it is the largest religion not only in the Philippines but also in the world with approximately almost two billion people believing. It is difficult to trace the origin of such religion especially when we know that it has already given a great impact to many Filipinos all over the country. Many are devoted doing unbelievable things just to prove their faith. Even our politics is having such controversy with the Church at some points in our lives. The aim of this research paper is to find out how Christianity spread in the Philippines knowing how great its impact is to us. As you go further reading, you will know the effects it had brought and their results to the Filipino race.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Analysis of the movie The Help Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Analysis of the movie The Help - Essay Example She uses their experiences in writing a book that highlights the struggles of the civil rights era. The book is from the view of the two house helps. It exposes the racism that they encounter in their daily working life. The book covers the existing relationships between the white employers, and their black house helps. This is especially considering that the black maids raise the children of their white employers. These children tend to have prejudiced attitudes towards their parents when they become adults. The daily interactions between the maids and their white employers reveal the various intercultural communication concepts and behavior between two different races with different cultural backgrounds. Institutional Collectivism is the first concept that is evident in the film. It is an intercultural concept in which the practices or the norms of a particular culture encourage and reward collective action (Jandt 201). Cultures with institutional collectivism have certain characteristics. Such a culture, for example, has its members assuming and believing that they are highly interdependent within the social organization. Group loyalty is highly encouraged even if it is against the pursuit of individual goals. The concept of Institutional Collectivism tends to maximize the interests of the social grouping and the collective as a whole. The concept allows for organizational collaboration and cooperation in achieving collective goals. The concept is seen in the film because they are certain groups advocating for the cooperation and collaboration of social groupings. They advocate for the achievement of social and economic gains of the group. For example, the white women led by Hilly hold regular meetings in which their collective interests are discussed. Moreover, they plan how to accomplish and achieve their interest. This group is known as the Bridge Club. During one of their regular