Monday, September 30, 2019

How Can We Organise Our Thinking Essay

Psychologists who study the mental process of thinking, as well as perception, learning, memory and language, work in the area of cognitive psychology. Thinking is probably one of the most difficult processes to describe, as we think in three ways. We think in words and meaning: semantic thought, we think in images by making mental pictures: iconic thought and enactive thought based on impressions of actions, such as tying a shoelace. Our memory provides us with the ability to remember the past and things that we have learnt in the past. On a daily basis we are overloaded with information, so how do we process it? Firstly, we can organise our thoughts by involving and using mental images which helps us memorise better verbal and written information. So, we think about things by making a mental picture in our mind. When starting to learn the a new language, mental images are very helpful to learn the basic vocabulary. A very good example of this is the key word technique. To explain this further, imagine a picture of a bell with a lid on it, which has a nasty smell, the French word is â€Å"La Poubelle†, and is pronounced pooh-bell, which means â€Å"bin† in English. You can then make a mental picture of yourself lifting the lid off of the bell shaped bin and saying â€Å"pooh†. This key word technique created by Michael Raugh and Richard Atkinson, who experimented on two groups of participants, who were asked to learn a list of 60 Spanish words. The group that used the key word technique, when all participants were tested, scored an average of 88% and the group that did not use these key words scored 28%. This proves that the use of mental images help us remember things, and we can develop different memory stagegies such as mnemonics, which are an aid or verse to remember facts. An example of this is, to aid us when setting up a snooker table with the different coloured balls. Most of us know all the red balls go in the triangle, and the location of the black, pink and blue balls. However, we do forget the order of the green, brown and yellow because they are placed in a row of three next to each other. An easy mnemonic way to remember this order of balls is: God Bless You. Second, another important way we can organise our thoughts is by putting them into categories. This is known as concept formation and is the process of developing mental representation by developing categories of a group of objects or events that share similar properties. For example, the concept of â€Å"animal†, this concept contains other sub-concepts and then further sub-concepts. You divide animals into birds, fish and mammals. Then, divide birds into robins, sparrows and owls etc. Using our concepts we can define the features that we associate with birds, such as wings, feathers, beaks, flying.These defining concepts of a bird, do not have to be applied rigidly, as certain birds cannot fly, such as penguins and ostriches. Weston Bousfield conducted an experiment where participants were asked to learn a list of sixty words that could be divided into four categories. Example: furniture, fruit, clothing and flowers. Although the words were presented in a random order, the participants tended to remember them in groups which belonged to the same category,so if they remembered apple, they would remember peach, lemon and strawberry.This shows us that the information was available, but without the category clues given above, we cannot access all of this information. Now, when we try to recall this information that has been arranged in to categories. Each piece of information then cues the next in turn, as it has been stored in our mind in an structured way, as opposed to a random and arbitrary way. Finally, schemas are a vital way to organise our thoughts, as they allow us to remember information about particular things. A schema is mental framework of knowledge developed as a result of experience, that can help us recall information that has been stored, and so provide more cues to prompt our memory. Hence, we file our knowledge about objects, situations, groups of people and ourselves into a large filing cabinet in our mind. The term schema (plural schemas or schemata) that was used by Jean Piaget an influential Swiss psychologist, who spent over 50 years, investigating the way children developed their thinking and cognitive skills, learning and memory.This was done by developing schemas which built up and developed by their result of experience in the world. Simply this means that our memory is a large filing cabinet and each file in the cabinet is a schema. If you opened a schema labelled † going to the cinema† it would contain all your knowledge about trips to the cinema. Buying a ticket, seeing a film, sitting in the dark and eating popcorn. So, if you went to a cinema that you had not been to before, you would open up your â€Å"cinema schema† file in your memory and this would lead the way. John Bransford and Marcia Johnson conducted an experiment, which illustrated the role of schemas.They asked participants to read a passage from a book and recall it as accurately as they could. Half the participants were given the title of the passage and the other half without the title of â€Å"washing clothes†.The title provides a schema, so that the information can be set aside and remembered more easily. In conclusion, we have explored the ways that we think and the ways that organising our thoughts our can improve our memory. So, mental images give us pictures, concept formation puts information into groups of categories, and developing schemas, allows us to construct and remember mental packages about relevant information.Therefore, our memory is the key to how we function and who we are.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Computerized Thesis Enrollment System Essay

Chapter I INTRODUCTION Project Context The evolution in technology caused by the needs especially in business demonstrates that Information System and Information Technology is essential ingredient for success of today’s enterprises. But still, some organizations and offices used the traditional or manual system in managing their information. The Don Bosco High School office, particularly the enrollment committee face tons of work in their daily activities most especially after enrollment because of failure to seek ways and means on how to simplify their task. The tasks are time consuming and sometimes end up with inaccurate reports. Thus, in this paper, the system developers aim to propose a computerized enrollment system specifically of use to the Don Bosco High School Enrollment Committee. According to the website reference.com, a computerized enrollment system is a multi-function processing operation that automatically manages and stores enrollment information. Computerization of enrollment information interrelates different yet interdependent transactions in a systematized and functional way. The use of computerized enrollment systems by organizations to help coordinate people and information is increasing throughout the world. Many experts cite numerous reasons why computerized enrollment systems are viable choices for schools, training programs and workplace operations. Computerized enrollment systems for educational services reduce processing time and human errors. Systems operations proceed faster, more efficiently and with greater accuracy than manual enrollment systems. Systems typically include data protection and backup frameworks. Student enrollees have access to their personal information exclusively. Employee workload is decreased and administrators can spend more time giving students more personalized attention and encouragement. Upon enrollment, new and transferee students will present their credentials to the enrollment committee. The credentials include form 138 (report card), certificate of good moral character, clear photocopy of NSO birth certificate, clear photocopy of baptismal certificate if baptized catholic and equivalent document for non-Catholics. On the other hand, the old students are required to submit their form 138 and summer grade if applicable for appraisal to the  enrollment committee. After completing all the requirements, the enrollment committee will issue an enrollment form for the student to fill up. The enrollment form will be returned to the enrollment committee for verification. If in case there are some fields that were not filled up, the enrollment form will be returned to the student to have it completed. The duly filled up enrollment form will be submitted to window 2 or the assessment window section for verification and validation. The students will need to wait for their names to be announced over the sound system. When student’s name is announced, the student will proceed to window 3 or the billing section window and pay necessary bills. After paying, they will proceed to the library and present their receipt for book rental for them to get their books. Then they will proceed to the Science Lab for the I.D. Finally, they will present again their receipt to the personnel in-charge. In the existing enrollment system of Don Bosco High School, the enrollment committee will sort all the enrollment form according to year level and section. The secretary will input the student details on the computer using Microsoft Excel. After entering all records, the forms will be filed on a folder and will be kept on a filing cabinet by the class adviser. The details about the students entered in the computer will be the basis of the secretary in preparing reports such as enrollment statistics, number of transferees, rep eaters, balik-aral and reports on religious denominations. All these data are sorted out according to year level and gender. Another report to be generated every after grading period is the report card of each student. The secretary will prepare a grading sheet form and distribute it to the subject teachers for them to fill up. Filled up grading sheet forms will be submitted to the class adviser for the preparation of report cards. The adviser will input the grades of each student per subject on the report card manually. Currently, updating records about students such as age, year level, status, number of brothers and sisters studying in the said school are done manually. Every enrollment, students are required to fill up enrollment form to update their records. Their previous records from their previous class advisers will be given to the present class advisers. The present class adviser will be the one to update the records of each student. Another important data that need updates in the student’s profile is the grade for each subje ct. Grade details are updated on the report card  of students by their class advisers and on their permanent records by the secretary. This means that every time a parent wants to check the record of a student, he/she needs to ask assistance from either the class adviser or the secretary. In case when some of the grades are not yet submitted to the class adviser, the parent needs to ask every subject teacher of his/her child. Occasionally, problems are encountered in updating and monitoring students’ records. Since students’ records are only filed in folders and kept in filing cabinets, there are instances that some records are lost or misplaced. In those cases, students are asked to fill up another copy of enrollment form. Students’ records are also hard to find since the class adviser or secretary needs to search the records manually. Every time there are updates on the students’ records, this also means an additional workload to the teachers and secretary since searching and updating records are done manually. Regarding updates on the grades of students, there are cases that grades are not submitted to the class adviser on time. This will be a burden to the parents who will be checking the grades of their children because it will require them to ask the subject teachers one by one. With the manual system, preparation and generation of reports is time consuming and difficult. This is because the secretary can only finish his report after sorting all the enrollment forms after. In the existing system, after sorting all the enrollment forms, the enrollment committee will sort and enter the details of students in Microsoft Excel for them to produce reports such as enrollment statistics, number of transferees, repeaters, balik-aral, and religious denominations; each of this information sorted out per year level and gender. These cause delayed submission of reports to the principal. On the part of the class adviser, preparing report cards of students is also time and effort consuming since he/she needs to write manually the grades of each student on their cards. These difficulties encountered by the employees because of their manual system push them to go for employing modern technology. Purpose and Description With the proposed system, updating and monitoring student’s records will be faster and more accurate. The parent will no longer go to the subject teacher of his/her child one by one or wait for the class adviser; instead  he/she can go directly to the principal’s office and ask assistance from the secretary about the grades of his/her child/children. The secretary will just enter the ID number or the name of the student on the system and all details of the student will be displayed. In updating student records, the class adviser will no longer update manually. All modifications about student’s records will be updated directly to the system upon enrollment. The possibility of lost or misplaced student’s record will be greatly minimized since all student details are already saved in the system’s database and records are back up regularly. The time allotted in generating reports will also be lessened and reports are more likely to be submitted on time at the principal’s office with the use of the proposed system. During enrollment, details about new students and updates about old student will be entered and stored directly on the system. This means that after enrollment, the secretary will no longer enter manually the details of student on the computer. Since the proposed system is capable of generating reports on the enrollment statistics, transferees, repeaters, balik-aral and religious denomination as to year level and gender, the difficulties being encountered by the enrollment committee will be minimized if not eliminated. Another feature of the proposed system is its log-in form with three user accounts, the administrator (secretary and principal), the cashier, and the adviser. The administrator has a full access to the system. The teachers are only allowed to register students and print reports. The cashier has access to the assessment process only. With this, security of student records is secured and enrollment process will no longer time consuming. Objectives The study aims to evaluate the present enrollment system of the Don Bosco High School. It also endeavors to provide effective and efficient way for easy operation and access of student’s record. Specifically, it aims to: 1 Determine and evaluate the existing system in terms of: a Monitoring Student Records b Updating Student Records c Reports Generation 2 Determine the problems encountered by the manual system in terms of: a Monitoring Student Records b Updating Student Records c Reports Generation 3 Propose a solution that would address the problems encountered. 4 Determine the benefits that can be derived from the proposed system. Scope and Delimitation This study restricts its investigation on the existing enrollment system of the Don Bosco High School in Lagawe, Ifugao. The proposed Enrollment System of Don Bosco High School will be designed to cover the major enrollment process of DBHS; student’s registration, monitoring student’s records and reports generation. It secures the important information of the student through personnel log-in. It can save the necessary data that the system should have through a manual process and produce backup into a storage device. The system provides the level of user accessibility. The system is designed to be manipulated only by the principal and the enrollment staff. It is not accessible to others. It is also designed to be reminders about unpaid school fees of the student and also there is an official receipt that can be printed by the system. Review of Related Literature A. COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY Nowadays, technologies have become widely used in everyday lives of people that even simple tasks are done with the help of powerful technological inventions. These are the fruits of the innovativeness and knowledge possessed by men. Computers are making revolutionary changes in the way people live, play and work. In almost every field, computers proved to be valuable assets. For example, the contribution of computers in the business field has been undeniably strong and effective. Computers have the ability to perform a complex and tedious work in a very effective manner resulting to the widespread need of computers inside many establishments. They are needed because of their usefulness like storing, retrieving, and clever of processing information. For effective execution of commands, software, just like the system proposed in this paper, are required to be installed to be able to handle processes in the computer’s working system. The  microcomputer and development of various softwares are not just for scientific and engineering use but as well as for education purposes particularly the enrollment process which is the focus of this study. As soon as people realized that the means to make better decisions and to solve problems faster is at the tip of their fingers through the use of computers, the demand for them increases exponentially. However, a computer is not an independent problem solver. But owing to the speed with which it can retrieve and manipulate large volumes of data, the computer is an essential aid on the problem solving process. Furthermore, electronic equipment permits fast and ecological processing of huge amounts of data. The computer can, with proper programming, process data towards logical conclusions, classify them, and make them readily available for a manager’s use (Greenwald et al., 2005). In fact, data do not become information until they are processed into a usable form that is readable to the users. Information system projects sometimes are initiated to improve the accuracy of the processing data or ensure that a procedure prescribing how to do specific task is always followed (Connolly and Begg, 2004). In this study, a software, specifically a computer-based enrollment system for Don Bosco High School is created using Microsoft Visual Studio 2008. Using this language, codes representing a set of commands are organized into one software which when installed will enable a computer to execute enrollment-related-commands from the user. B. COMPUTERIZED ENROLLMENT SYSTEM A computerized enrollment system is a good example of a computer generated process. Computers are almost indispensable to most industries because of its ability to deal with voluminous records. Hence, in most academic institutions, the use of computers is an immense help in managing records and files. With the volume of files such as those from students’ records, finances, inventories, and others needed for its operation, the use of computer has made tasks simpler, faster and more efficient. The use of computers can lessen the workload and provides accurate information needed to the school. As a result, it will benefit not only the student but the administration as a whole. Thus, a computerized enrollment system is very  essential to every school. As an example, Long Beach City College in California, USA has gone live with a new Cognos-based enrollment management system that was designed by Irvine, CA-based professional services firm e2e Analytix. Prior to installing the new system, LBCC which has two main campuses and multiple satellites that support nine schools and 34 departments, handled its enrollment via manual spreadsheets. With no reporting, continuity, or standard practices, and with lengthy error corrections, the school’s enrollment management budgeting and planning took up three months to compile, consolidate, and implement. LBCC tapped e2e Analytix, which specializes in higher education, to design a web-based enrollment management system using Cognos Enterprise Planning software from Cognos Inc. (Ottawa,Ontario). Using Cognos for enrollment management was a unique application for Cognos, according to Dan Galuppo, e2e’s director of professional services, but the result delivers real-time data collection, consolidation, workflow, and calculations to help LBCC enrollment staff in making faster and more informed decisions. On the other hand, although most schools here in the Philippines have their own computers, their functions are not fully maximized. The University of the Philippines has recently developed its own computerized enrollment system together with the other known universities. However, many still rely on the manual system of storing and retrieving files, thus in turn, make work laborious, time consuming, less efficient and requiring more manpower. The Pangasinan State University- Lingayen Campus currently uses the manual system of enrollment. For years, this system has been employed and has indeed been a tedious process on the part of the students as well as the members of the enrollment committee. This entails the long process of filling up forms in three copies (student copy, accounts copy and registrar’s copy), class scheduling, assessment of fees, and issuance of student records. The continued adoption of this usual manual enrollment system has caused numerous errors, unnecessary delays, and has ultimately made the entire enrollment system a slow process to contend considering the influx of students each year. Fortunately, the design, development and implementation of EnrollmentAutomate: Pangasinan State University Computerized Enrollment System is introduced to address this long-standing  slow process of enrollment and already in the process. Technical Background Table 1. Hardware Requirements of the Proposed System Minimum Hardware Specifications Recommended Hardware Specifications Processor – 1 ghz Hard disk – 40 GB free hard disk space Memory – 512 MB Video Card—8 MB Printer – Any Printer Processor – 2 ghz or higher Hard disk –160GB free hard disk space or higher Memory-1GB or higher Video Card—16 MB or higher Printer – Ink Jet

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Poets and Pancakes Essay

Gemini Studios Gemini Studios was one of India’s pioneer movie factories. Situated in the present day Chennai, owned by S.S Vaasan and worked by over 600 staff, the GS made movies for Tamilnadu and other southern Indian states. Pancake[TM] was the makeup material used by the GS. Asokamitran Asokamitran was one of the staff whose job was to collect information such as news events from newspapers and magazines and to paste them in files. The other staff considered his job out of place and most of them thought so high of themselves. Here are some of the interesting staffs of GS. Office Boy Office Boy was a grown up man in the Makeup Department of the GS. He was in charge of the crowd makeup. He applied pancake on their faces with the help of a dipped paint brush. Though his job was quite an easy one, the office boy considered him to be a greatly skilled artist. Subbu Kothamangalam Subbu was another clerk. He was not as educated, as fortunate and as supported by as the Office Boy, yet he reached the top of the GS. He was a man of amazing genius. He was able to direct the directors. He suggested dozens of ways to shoot a certain scene when the director failed to find one. He acted better than the heroes. He wrote incredible poems. Though he was able to write more complicated ones that could raise him to the status of a great poet, Subbu preferred writing them in simple Tamil to enlighten the majority of Tamil people. Besides, he supported his far and near relatives. But he had only enemies everywhere because he was very much close to the boss, Vaasan. Legal Advisor The legal advisor worked in the Story Department. He was a lawyer and provided legal advices to the writers yet he was known as the illegal advisor. The following incident is one reason that gave him that name. Once a shooting was under progress. The heroine, a highly emotional girl, got  angry with the director and producer. While the whole set stood stunned at this, the legal advisor recorded her voice without her permission and made her listen to the playback, thus resulting the end of a rising actress. Poets and writers Gemini Studios had some great poets like Harindranath Chatopadhyaya and a few others. Most of the insignificant poets considered so great of themselves. They had no great talent, no great creativity, no political views yet they assumed the airs of the greatest poets, wasting Vaasan’s money and time. They believed Gandhiji to be the last word of politics and had developed an aversion to Communism. Communism and anti-communism Communism was a new political order that was spreading throughout the world, especially in Asian countries. Communism preached equality of people and abolition of poverty and class divisions while it discouraged private ownership. But Communism won a negative impression due the Capitalist countries such as America. MRA MRA or Moral Rearmament Army was an international team of actors and actresses that spread anti communist feelings throughout the world. The MRA came to Chennai and saw how influential was Gemini Studios in the south of India. The team got permission from Vaasan to stage their plays. Vaasan was only happy to give them permission because he hoped that his staff would get inspiration from the international team. But little did Vaasan know of their intentions. MRA staged their plays with hidden anticommunist messages and went away and it was yet after some time that Vaasan realized that he had been fooled. Stephen Spender Why should Vaasan be fooled if an organization spread anti communist messages in Chennai? It appears that Vaasan himself was a Communist! Or, he too had an experience of a disillusioned abandoning of Communism. The author has not given us a hint about this and therefore we have to different opinions: Crisis Vasan as a Communist: If so, Vasan felt terribly bad for being played into the hands of the MRA that left a deep anticommunist impression upon his staff. He therefore decided to bring back the Communist atmosphere in his studio and for this he invited a communist poet to deliver a speech on how great Communism was. Vasan as an anticommunist: If SS Vasan was an anticommunist, he was the one who invited the MRA to the Gemini Studios. Later, when he saw that MRA had successfully spread anticommunism among his staff, he wanted to strengthen the new notions in them by inviting another anticommunist and therefore he invited Spender. Spender’s Speech Anyway, Stephen Spender, who was once a prominent communist editor and poet from England, came to the studio and gave his speech. His lecture was about Communism on one side and about his struggles to establish as a poet on the other. Whatever he spoke was great, hot, exciting and inspiring, but what use, his accent was such terrible one that none of the Gemini staff could clearly understand what Spender had spoken. They fell into shame for not being able to understand the poet and wished not to meet him again. Asokamitran’s meeting Spender-1 The lesson ends with two incidents in which Asokamitran, our author, met Spender; not face to face, but in two different ways. While attempting to send his short story to England to participate in a contest, Asokamitran happened to read The Encounter, a magazine that had Stephen Soender as its editor. On another occasion he happened to read the book, the God that Failed, an article of which was written by Spender. Questions & Answers How was Gemini Studios connected to Robert Clive? The connection the GS had with Robert Clive was that its Make-up Department  was built on the upstairs of Clive’s stables. What was the fiery misery inside the make-up department of the Studios? The makeup room had a lot of hot bulbs always burning inside and a number of mirrors to reflect the heat. Madras, being a hot city and no cooling at that time at the studio, it was a real misery inside the makeup room. All this shows that there was a great deal of national integration long before A.I.R. and Doordarshan began broadcasting programs on national integration. Explain. The heads and the subordinates of the make-up department were from various parts of India. There was no preference to any state or language or religion. Anyone could be the head. Once there was a Bengali as the head of this department. He was succeeded by a Maharashtrian who was assisted by a Dharwar Kannadiga, an Andhra, a Madras Indian Christian, an Anglo-Burmese and the local Tamils. Who was the office boy? What was his duty in the make-up department? How did he appreciate himself and his profession? The office boy was a forty year old man who worked at the lowest rank among the makeup artists at the Gemini Studios. His duty was to apply makeup for the crowd-players for shooting. As his work required no skill and that he was not satisfied with his designation and the kind of work, the ‘Boy’ remained unsatisfied and criticized everyone he was jealous. How was the author’s job odd in the eyes of the other staff? How did they respond to this? Asokamitran’s job at the Gemini Studios was to collect information from newspapers and magazines and to paste the cuttings in files for reference. This was probably the only work odd in the Gemini Studios while every other staff was some sort of an artist. They therefore advised the author to do some better jobs other than wasting his time cutting papers in a department similar to a barber shop. Why did the author pray for crowd shooting? Like many of the other staff who believed that Asokamitran was doing next to nothing in the Gemini Studios the Office Boy too used to advise him for hours. When the author was tired of his unending epics, he used to pray for a crowd shooting to which the Office Boy assigned. Who was Kothamangalam Subbu? How did he make all the other staff hate him? Kothamangalam Subbu joined the Gemini Studios as a clerk and remained the same in the records. But in practice he soon acquired the status of the No.2 at the studios thanks to his amazing genius and multifaceted skills. He did any work for  his boss and ignored the rest above him. This made him envied and hated by the rest of the staff. Discuss Subbu’s identity as a poet. Why was he not known as a poet? Apart from being an amazing director of movies, Subbu had the identity as a poet. The world of his time and later never recognized Subbu as a poet yet he was a great unknown poet. He wrote poem in the simplest Tamil language and was able to recreate the classical poems in his own style. Subbu excelled as an actor too. Discuss. Subbu was a good actor. He was able to act better than the lead actors yet never wished to take any lead roles in any movie. In spite of all the good qualities and readiness to be a host any time, Subbu had only enemies. Why? Subbu was good to everyone he came by, spoke in his niceness, fed his relatives, excelled everyone in the Gemini Studios but was hated by most of them just because he was so close to the boss of the studios. Being a clerk in the attendance register he was above all and above all the departments. Those who bore designations above Subbu felt it intolerable to obey him. How did the legal advisor behave illegally in the instance of the actress. The legal advisor was, of course, an advocate, yet was known as an illegal advisor. Once he recorded the voice of an actress who shouted at the producer and director while in the shooting sets. The legal advisor’s behavior turned out to be illegal because he did it without the actress’ permission. In what context did Congress rule mean Prohibition and how was it for the staff of Gemini Studios meeting over a cup of coffee a rather satisfying entertainment? Congress being the ruling party, made the public’s life horrible by imposing curfew and emergency in the initial years of Independent India. Citizens were not allowed to gather and hold meetings. While the whole of the nations struggled under emergencies, the six hundred Gemini staff enjoyed freedom inside the studios as their freedom was not restricted. How did Subbu surpass the office boy despite his limitations? The office boy in the makeup department was always ahead of Subbu in the beginning, especially in education, having influential people to support. But he ended up where he began while Subbu ascended the steps to the maximum height and surpassed the Boy. The staff of the Gemini Studios attributed Subbu’s success to his being a Brahmin. Why? Most of the staff of the Gemini studios was unhappy with Subbu. His amazing influence on the Boss and the  consequent privileges he enjoyed made them feel jealous of him. So, instead of accepting his talents, they consoled themselves by attributing his fortunes to be a Brahmin. What is Communism? What ideas about the communism gathered popularity in India? Communism is a political order that believes in the equality of citizens and abolition of private ownership. The state or nation is the owner and caretaker of each citizen. Citizen’s welfare is nation’s prime concern. It sometimes resorts to armed revolution to establish social and political equality. What was MRA? Why did it tour the world? MRA, short for Moral Rearmament Army was an anti-Communist organization that toured the world informing the world of the evil side of Communism that was spreading throughout Asia and some parts of Europe. Headed by Frank Buchman, the MRA believed that Communism was evil and it would wipe out democracy in the world. How did the MRA spread its anti Communist ideas in South India? Moral Rearmament Army believed that Communism was evil and therefore wanted to wipe it out of the world. This group of 200 men and women from twenty different nations spread anti communist messages with the help of their stage performances such as dramas. How was Vasan played into the hands of the MRA? There is no clear indication that Vasan, the owner of the Gemini Studios, was a Communist or not yet there are very clear hints that he was a prominent Communist of Chennai. The MRA spread its anti-Communist messages through their stage programs and made the poets and writers of the South India hate Communism which was a great achievement. Vasan, who knew nothing of their intentions, was indeed fooled by MRA at his cost. Why was Stephen Spender invited to the Gemini Studios? Who wanted him there? Stephen Spender was a great poet with Communist inclinations. SS Vasan, the owner of the Gemini Studios, wanted Spender give a speech on the greatness of Communism to his staff. Spender’s Speech was a shock for him and a matter of utter shame for the literati of the Gemini Studios. Explain. Stephen Spender was specially invited to the Gemini Studios to enlighten the staff there with communist ideas. When Spender began his speech he was amazed to see the way he was being listened to. But soon, when he realized that his audience didn’t  follow him the least due to his accent, Spender’s amazement turned to utter shock and embarrassment and he stopped his speech in the middle. How are poets and prose writers different according to Asokamitran? What personal experience makes him say that? Asokamitran says poems can be written by any genius while prose writing is the true pursuit of a really determined person who has suffered a lot of rejections and is ready for any further disappointments with more perseverance to pursue his mission of writing a long prose. Spender’s Speech was a shock for him and a matter of utter shame for the literati of the Gemini Studios? Stephen Spender was called to the Gemini Studios to talk to the staff there about Communism but what he spoke was of his struggles as a poet. Whatever he spoke, his talk was not followed by practically an yone. When Spender realized that his audience didn’t follow his talk, he stopped in utter shame to have made a talk to a deaf audience while the Gemini staff got dispersed in great humiliation because Spender’s accent failed them. How are poets and prose writers different according to Asokamitran? What personal experience makes him say that? Asokamitran believes in the qualitative difference between prose writers and poem writers. A poem can be written in no time if the poet is a genius while prose such as a novel can be written by a person who has a lot of patience and perseverance. The prose writer’s mind should be so shrunken that no rejection can disappoint him but he will be encouraged from failures and rejections. How did the magazine ‘The Encounter’ become important in Asokamitran’s life? The Encounter was a British Communist magazine. When Stephen Spender was its editor, this magazine organized a short story competition for writers from all over the world. How does the book, ‘The God That Failed’ deserve its title? OR Justify the title, ‘The God That Failed.’ The ‘God That Failed’ was written by six eminent writers who were attracted to Communism and abandoned it because they hated it later on. Communism was in its beginning, a God because it stood for equality and removal of class systems and poverty. While the Gods or incarnations before it achieved their goals, Communism failed in attaining its goals as it was a failure in itself. What made Asokamitran hope Stephen Spender too would be singing the same song at the same time when he sealed the envelop of his manuscript? Asokamitran had been struggling to establish as a writer when he came across the magazine, The Encounter. When he saw that the editor of The Encounter  was Stephen Spender, the same poet who came to Gemini Studios and talked about his struggles to become a poet, Asokamitran felt as if he had found a long lost brother. ‘In a moment I felt a dark chamber of my mind lit up by a hazy illumination.’ What was the dark chamber? What did light up the darkness? Due to Spender’s British accent the normally educated staff like could not understand his speech and therefore his speech remained an unsolved mystery for the staff including Asokamitran. This mystery was the dark chamber of his mind. When Asokamitran saw that Spender was the editor of The Encounter, he understood that Spender’s speech was all about stories and poems and suddenly he related this to his speech he made years ago the Gemini Studios. The Boss of the Gemini Studios may not have much to do with Spender’s poetry. But not with his god that failed.’ Explain. Stephen Spender was invited to the Gemini Studios to enlighten the staff with great ideals of Communism but what Spender spoke was about his thrills and struggles to establish himself as a poet. The bosses of the studio like S. S. Vasan were interested in Spender as a Communist, not as a poet. How did MRA impress the staff of Gemini Studios and the Tamil drama community? Taking a careful reading, one sees the tremendous struggle that Asokamitran underwent to surface as a writer par excellence. Discuss. For Asokamitran training himself as a writer was passion. He had a nickname, barber, when he was working at Gemini Studios because he did a lot of cutting newspaper clips and magazine as he was a news record keeper. Even though he was laughed at by the rest of the staff and was advised by some to seek a profession that fitted him, Asokamitran had a drudge that nothing could weaken – he was determined to rise in the world of people of his kind: writers. Among those members of the Gemini staff who was embarrassed and confused at Stephen Spender’s lost speech was there none as embarrassed and confused as Asokamitran. It was all because of his literary ambitions that he was able to know more about Spender and his literary traits and political views as well as the unknown communist inclinations of the boss of one of India’s foremost movie factories. Asokamitran’s language that we read in the extract, Poets and Pancakes, is amazing as an India author is concerned and there is no doubt that he acquired it as part of his quest for perfection as a writer. He quite poignantly narrates his participating in a short story contest organized by the Encounter for which he spent considerable time and money. On reading the name of the editor, Stephen Spender, he feels like getting his lost brother back.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Vocational research paper on a career - lawyer Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Vocational on a career - lawyer - Research Paper Example The certificate is called pre-law degree. The training is available at universities or law schools. An individual practicing to be a lawyer must pass through the Bar examination, ethics examination and graduate from a law school (The Lawyers Almanac 2011: The Leading Reference of Vital Facts and Figures about the Legal Profession 301). Education requirement for practicing lawyers is set by each school and normally the fees charged for the training ranges from & $150,000 to over $200, 000. In addition, the entry in the bar examination depends on each state’s bar association. The duration taken to study law differ in countries and law schools. An example is that, in the UK, it is: The LLB is 3 years, and the LLM is one year course. Conversely, in the US: A J.D. will take three years to complete after you have spent four years completing a bachelors degree (Walton 95). There are different kinds of lawyers amongst them judicial clerks being paid an average of $54,000, Prosecutors $35,000 to $90,000, public defender $35,000 to $57,000, and federal government lawyer $ 62, 467 as of 2012(The Authoritative Guide Careers for the Year 2000 and Beyond: Everything You Need to Know to Find the Right Career 118). Law as a profession also has various prominent personalities who act as a role model to aspiring lawyers to be. They are Nelson Mandela, Gandhi, Fidel Castro, Dick Button and Jeffrey Chodorow (Basu 192). Demand of people in the profession of law is rather disturbing since most law schools are producing an excess of graduates lawyers. These lawyers are not proportionated with the available employment opportunities available in the nation and the result is unemployment for most graduates lawyers and decreased pay as there are many lawyers available in the market (Occupational Outlook Handbook 256). In conclusion, law is a extremely essential profession since it is

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Individual Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Individual Assignment - Essay Example According to Weitz (2012), the use of multiple retail channels enables the consumers to buy what they want, when they want and wherever they want. This strategy has provided great convenience to consumers in that they can enjoy shopping from the comfort of their homes. They can also do shopping whenever they want in an environment that promotes interaction with the retailers. The other advantage of multi channel retailing is that the customers can have access to a variety of products. The buying behaviour of the consumers is also influenced by different cultural factors. Basically, every consumer belongs to a specific culture and these cultural factors help the consumers make sense of and relate to the environment (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010). It can be noted that specific behaviour are related to certain aspects of the culture. Thus, culture is comprised of a set of basic values, perceptions, work patterns as well as products and food customs among other factors. All these shape the behaviour of the customers. Therefore, it can be seen that the products offered in mainland Hong Kong are tailored in such a way that is meant to fulfill needs and interests of the targeted consumers. Given such a scenario, it can be observed that the mainland consumers are under no pressure to look further than their boundaries to purchase different products since they can get them from their own country. The products are also designed to attract new customers while at the same time r etaining the already existing buyers. Certain categories of products benefited most in the past and they include the following. For instance, the department stores sales dropped down to 5.3% y/y drop in December and this was a reversal of the +6.0% y/y growth that was witnessed in November. On the other hand, it can be observed that medicines and cosmetics growth slowed down to

Xedit Li Yuan polisy 24 hours services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Xedit Li Yuan polisy 24 hours services - Essay Example When it came to my passion in modeling, height turned to be a limiting factor once again, but this time in the reverse order. I didn’t meet the height requirements for the university level modeling. This couldn’t stop me from achieving my dream towards modeling, as I turned myself into a coach and a team builder. I not only successfully chased my dream but also helped others to do the same by establishing university’s first modeling association. Accomplishments value more when it serves towards ones social commitment. My neighborhood in Tianjin saw agitations from small shop owners as the government had forcefully relocated them as a part of the Olympics despite the long term contracts with their landlords and had spent ample money on shop restructuring which was not compensated. In spite of joining them in the less successful protest, I decided to use my negotiation skills developed in business environments to intervene in the issue. I discussed in detail the problems of the shop keepers which were wide and vivid ranging from location to inventory. Meanwhile, I analyzed the government’s blueprint of the new street and the time schedule for the reconstruction .Resultantly I developed a compensation plan which was approved by the shop keepers as well. This professional approach made room for discussion and finally the plan got approved. The accomplishment resulted from my innovation and I could successfully utilize my business skills into a social stage .This was counted as substantial because it attributed much towards my confidence to strive in changing scenarios of life. Successful accomplishment of my dream to establish Gravity Advisor Inc, a state of the art financial consultancy was a proof of my entrepreneurial skills. I developed the dream as I was curious about venture capital since Chinese companies started to be listed in American stock exchanges. Starting with NET 263 as CFO assistant, I was later

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Discuss whether or not the media is a reliable source of knowledge Essay

Discuss whether or not the media is a reliable source of knowledge about crime and criminality, and utilise examples to illustrate the concept of 'media and moral panics' - Essay Example Determining the crime rate based solely on reported crime and number of arrests can be inaccurate because not all crime is reported and not all arrests turn into convictions. According to Crimestoppers U.K. (2009), recorded crime provides a majority of the crime statistics and can determine the amount of police manpower necessary to keep crime in check. However, it is the surveys that provide more valuable information about unreported crime. Crimestoppers states that â€Å"The BCS (British Crime Survey) count also gives a better indication of trends in crime over time because it is unaffected by changes in levels of reporting to the police and in police recording practices.† In Pfeiffer’s (2007) preface, she states that her motivation to write a book about mentally ill persons in prison stems from a statistic regarding suicide that had been prepared about conditions of New York State prisons. In her further research, the high suicide rate that she had read about turned out to be a conservative figure. Pfeiffer realized that the statistics reported were grossly inaccurate and decided that she needed to find out the truth for herself. Throughout her book, she follows the stories of six mentally ill inmates who ultimately took their own lives. On page eleven Pfeiffer states, â€Å"When people commit suicide, rarely is the information released to the public. When reporters ask for it, they are given minimal details and told to wait for official reports.† Pfeiffer’s discovery opens another aspect to why the media is not always an entirely reliable source of information regarding crime. A reporter can only relay the facts they are given. The reporter has no choice but to relay the information he has been given, and if the information is inaccurate that is how it will be reported. Where the information comes from initially plays a huge role in the accuracy of the report. Leighton (2007) states that, â€Å"Statistics are tricky. For every statistic designed to

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Sara Lee Corporation Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Sara Lee Corporation - Case Study Example The strategy was also developed so as to allow the company to primarily focus its vital resources on the currently more profitable household products, beverages and foods industries with the aim of strengthening the company’s financial position. By the year 2007, Sara Lee’s Operating Excellence was seen not to be progressing as expected and hence the management introduced a new policy to help optimize the company’s overall productivity by initiating Project Accelerate (Thompson, et al., 243-256). Issues and Problems The seven units that Sara Lee divested generally included European nuts and snacks, direct sales, European and U.S. meats, U.S. retail coffee, European apparel, European Rice and Sara Lee branded apparel. By exiting from the operations of these eight businesses that the company perceived as being mainly nonstrategic, the company essentially followed a strategy that allowed it to increase its share of the corporate profits, due to the fact that most of the business units that the company retrenched were deemed as being unprofitable. By the year 2006, about five of these business units were seen to have negative net profit margins as well as negative operating margins. The European nuts and snacks, and the direct selling unit were essentially the only units that were generally profitable. These two units were experiencing declining operating margins and revenues apart from the increase in margins that they experienced in 2006 (Thompson, et al., 254). The decision to divest the company’s snack operations can be deemed as having been the correct one as the division was only able to produce net profits of about $3 million an amount which would not have resulted in considerably increasing the wealth of the company’s shareholders. In the deal to sell the unit, the company managed to receive about $70 million after taxes, this was a positive development as it was about 22 times the current net profit (Thompson, et al., 248 ). The decision to spin off Hanesbrands can essentially be seen to have resulted in seriously crippling Hanesbrands as it incurred a huge long-term debt that can potentially seriously affect its ability to turn considerable profits in the future (Thompson, et al., 248-249). The decision to sell its direct sales units can generally be regarded as having been a bad decision as the unit was drawing a profit margin of about 27% with an estimated income of about $54 million (Thompson, et al., 247). The direct sales division also served to expose Sara Lee corporation to other markets a factor which could have served to allow the company to potentially find new markets for some of its other products. However, by selling the unit, Sara Lee managed to receive a net gain of about 4 times of the unit’s current profits. An Analysis of Sara Lee Corporation’s Macro-Environment Pestle Analysis of Sara Lee Corporation There are various key factors that can be seen to be affecting Sara Lee’s Corporation’s external environment. Some of these factors include: Political Factors: Some of the main political factors affecting Sara Lee include the various political issues surrounding the company’s strategy of divesting its business operations. Economic Factors: The impact of the recent global recession was seen to have an effect on a number of industries across the world and was seen to also affect the operations of Sara Lee corporation. The company’s bimbo brand of fresh bread that was seen to be the market leader in packaged bread that was sold in Spain with an impressive market share of about 37 percent and was subsequently ranked as being the second-best-selling packaged bread in Spain happened to be rather severely affected by

Monday, September 23, 2019

American History Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

American History - Assignment Example Foreigners had to obey the rules; otherwise they were banned from ports. At the same time this situation created disagreements between the mother country and colonies of West Indies and North America. English men simply perceived colonies as a commodity, a valuable resource for their own prosperity and the colonists wished to pursue their own economic interests. 3. Why did England and France go to war with each other in the late 1600's and late 1700's? Sequence of wars between England and France represented their struggle for control over the American colonies. American territories gave vast economic benefits for the mother country: trade and farming was mounting there. Therefore England and France were interested in expanding their presence on American soil. All but one war (so called French and Indian War) started on the European territory and then moved to colonies. 4. Why were the Mid-Atlantic colonies so appealing to new colonists? Why did many colonists move to those colonies? The colonies of Mid-Atlantic were famous for its diversity, multiculturalism and significant economic growth. Therefore this pluralistic society attracted many new colonists; people saw more opportunities to earn money there. Immigrants from Ireland were looking for freer trade opportunities, less rent expenses and religious freedom.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genres of Literature Essay Example for Free

Genres of Literature Essay Genres of literature are important to learn about. The two main categories separating the different genres of literature are fiction and nonfiction. There are several genres of literature that fall under the nonfiction category. Nonfiction sits in direct opposition to fiction. Examples from both the fiction and nonfiction genres of literature are explained in detail below. This detailed genres of literature list is a great resource to share with any scholars. Types of Nonfiction: Narrative Nonfiction is information based on fact that is presented in a format which tells a story. Essays are a short literary composition that reflects the author’s outlook or point. A short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, usually in prose and generally analytic, speculative, or interpretative. A Biography is a written account of another person’s life. An Autobiography gives the history of a person’s life, written or told by that person. Often written in Narrative form of their person’s life. Speech is the faculty or power of speaking; oral communication; ability to express one’s thoughts and emotions by speech, sounds, and gesture. Generally delivered in the form of an address or discourse. Finally there is the general genre of Nonfiction. This is Informational text dealing with an actual, real-life subject. This genre of literature offers opinions or conjectures on facts and reality. This includes biographies, history, essays, speech, and narrative non fiction. Nonfiction opposes fiction and is distinguished from those fiction genres of literature like poetry and drama which is the next section we will discuss. Genres of Fiction: Drama is the genre of literature that’s subject for compositions is dramatic art in the way it is represented. This genre is stories composed in verse or prose, usually for theatrical performance, where conflicts and emotion are expressed through dialogue and action. Poetry is verse and rhythmic writing with imagery that evokes an emotional response from the reader. The art of poetry is rhythmical in composition, written or spoken. This genre of literature is for exciting pleasure by beautiful, imaginative, or elevated thoughts. Fantasy is the forming of mental images with strange or other worldly settings or characters; fiction which invites suspension of reality. Humor is the faculty of perceiving what is amusing or comical. Fiction full of fun, fancy, and excitement which meant to entertain. This genre of literature can actually be seen and contained within all genres. A Fable is a story about supernatural or extraordinary people Usually in the form of narration that demons trates a useful truth. In Fables, animals often speak as humans that are legendary and supernatural tales. Fairy Tales or wonder tales are a kind of folktale or fable. Sometimes the stories are about fairies or other magical creatures, usually for children. Science Fiction is a story based on impact of potential science, either actual or imagined. Science fiction is one of the genres of literature that is set in the future or on other planets. Short Story is fiction of such briefness that is not able to support any subplots. Realistic Fiction is a story that can actually happen and is true to real life. Folklore are songs, stories, myths, and proverbs of a person of â€Å"folk† that was handed down by word of mouth. Folklore is a genre of literature that is widely held, but false and based on unsubstantiated beliefs. Historical Fiction is a story with fictional characters and events in a historical setting. Horror is an overwhelming and painful feeling caused by literature that is frightfully shocking, terrifying, or revolting. Fiction in which events evoke a feeling of dread in both the characters and the reader. A Tall Tale is a humorous story with blatant exaggerations, swaggering heroes who do the impossible with an here of nonchalance. Legend is a story that sometimes of a national or folk hero. Legend is based on fact but also includes imaginative material. Mystery is a genre of fiction that deals with the solution of a crime or the unraveling of secrets. Anything that is kept secret or remains unexplained or unknown. Mythology is a type of legend or traditional narrative. This is often based in part on historical events, that reveals human behavior and natural phenomena by its symbolism; often pertaining to the actions of the gods. A body of myths, as that of a particular people or that relating to a particular person. Fiction in Verse is full-length novels with plot, subplots, themes, with major and minor characters. Fiction of verse is one of thegenres of literature in which the narrative is usually presented in blank verse form. The genre of Fiction can be defined as narrative literary works whose content is produced by the imagination and is not necessarily based on fact. In fiction something is feigned, invented, or imagined; a made-up story. The Oxford English Dictionary is a great place to consult for any further definitions of the different genres of literature explained here.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Globalization And Impact On Indian Banking Sector Finance Essay

Globalization And Impact On Indian Banking Sector Finance Essay INTRODUCTION PREVIEW This is an introduction chapter which describes the structure of the dissertation. It begins with a brief introduction to the area of research, purpose and aims and objectives set for this research. This section also includes justification for selecting banking sector to study the impact of globalization for this study. 1.2 INTRODUCTION A bank is a licensed body by the government which is primarily engaged in the process of borrowing and lending money which in turn helps in economic development of the country. The customers of a bank are mainly households government, public/ private corporations who invest and borrow funds from these institutions. Banks have a monopoly in creating credit in the market. If companies are provided with finance, it encourages enterprises which leads to increase in production, leads to promotion of jobs, less reliance on foreign imports. If personal customers are provided with finance it would stimulate the demand for goods which then leads to an in increase production of goods. Therefore banks play a very important role in the economic development of the country (Cox 1983, pg2-4). Initially there were many barriers in the banking sector through out the world. These were lack of information about foreign companies, tax liability which was applicable to income earned from these transactions, cost of executing international transactions were expensive. Regulations were eliminated in 1980s and early 1990s. Government allowed privatization in 1990. Government owned firms were sold to individuals, trading of stocks of firms was allowed publicly. This led to globalization, deregulation and liberalization. Under the influence of globalization Internet and telephone banking, ATM, credit and debit cards and many other services provided by the banking sector were introduced which has increased the efficiency of banks and has brought the banking revolution( Madura 1995, pg-7 ). Globalization has led to a revolution in the banking sector though Indian banks stiff face severe challenges . This study will highlight these challenges and the researcher will also suggests some of solutions found in the literature to overcome these challenges and will co-relate solutions found through primary research. This will help in understanding the Indian banking sector in dept. In addition to this if the Indian banking sector overcome these challenges it can mark its place with other leading global titans. 1.3 RESEARCH AREA To examine critically the impact of globalization on Indian banking sector highlighting the challenges faced by the Indian banks is the primary focus of this research. Since the days of Bretton Woods era financial world has witnessed tremendous changes. Technological change and cut throat competition has enforced the financial world to adopt better techniques and attract customers. The range of products and services were limited in the 70s(Raul 2005, pp 39). After gaining independence in 1947 Until 1991 there has been regulations like administered interest rates and government control etc. upon implementation of recommendations by Narsimha committee led to rapid and radical changes. Now the banking sector offers wide range of services like securitization, leasing and hire purchase, custodial service, depositories , factoring etc. New financial institution, dis-intermediation, greater professionalism and technological innovation have emerged as a result of liberalization, privatization and globalization. In addition to this capital adequacy norms, income recognition and assets classification were introduced in the ambit of banking activities and banks are compelled to cope up with the process of deregulation, competition, asset liability management and globalization(Raul 2005, pp 39). 1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The main aim of this research work is to analyze critically and examine the concept of globalization and its impact on the Indian banking sector along with and challenges which arise as a result of globalization. The researcher also aims to find out the adverse effect of these challenges and what measures can be taken to reduce them. Research question A study on the impact of globalization on the Indian banking sector highlighting the challenges faced by the public sector banks in India. The main objectives of this research are as follows:- To examine the the challenges faced by the Indian public sector banks with regards to technology, human resource, customer service , NPAs. To analyze and explore the potential solutions to overcome these challenges. 1.5 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Indian banking sector is resilient and has shown tremendous growth yet it faces many challenges which needs to be controlled and managed. Recently there have been waves of bank failures throughout the world. Banks became insolvent due to which there was financial downturn globally. Banks are highly volatile in nature and have a direct impact on the economy of a country. So every country should aim to make their banking system stable and sound only then they will be able to withstand the shocks. Many changes have taken place in the Indian economy since 1990s that has revolutionized and revitalized the Indian economy. During this phase the key growth sectors and consumer demands have undergone a series of changes. The researcher is keen on investigating the impact of changes with respect to banking sector. India is a developing economy there lies many areas in the Indian banking sector to be explored also this is an untouched area in the UWIC. All the above mentioned points motivated the researcher to study in detail about the Indian banking sector, impact of globalization on it, and challenges arising as a result of globalization also highlighting potential solutions. This piece of work can provide guidance or a framework for other developing countries which are also facing similar challenges. Moreover ,The researcher is a permanent resident of India and would be able to gain access or conduct interviews of the bank managers to retrieve information which would further form a basis of research. 1.6 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE RESEARCH ROLE OF UBLIC SECTOR IN BANKING Anglo Saxon and Asian model are the two models of ownership by the banks. Many developed countries have adopted the Anglo Saxon model. Under this model the key decisions are taken by the top executives independently dictated by short term requirements and regulations may not be stringent .The latter model is adopted by many developing countries like India . India has a financial system which has substantial ownership by the public sector and has a different structure of incentives for the top executives. It is more likely that in this model where more complex products are involved there is less financial innovation . thus this sector is likely to be less efficient and less innovative but would be more steady. The advantage of this sector during the time of crisis is the perceived sovereign backing. While the former model during crisis came under pressure whereas the later model like the presence of public sector made the Indian financial system sound and stable. It was evident from t he fact that during 2oo8 and 2oo9 foreign and private sector banks NA ratio increased significantly and as an after effect of crisis , the public sectors NA ratio declined. It was lowest amongst all bank groups. For the Indian Banking sector , the public ownership has proved to be a source of strength rather than weakness. On the contrary to the belief that public ownership weakens the efficiency of a firm does not stand true in the case of the Indian banking sector. RBI organized an analytical exercise which indicates that cost and technical efficiency of the public sector banks have been much higher than private and foreign banks in India recently. Moreover public sector banks key role played by the banks is social development and to meet the objectives of developmental finance which is very essential for a developing economy like India. public ownership plays a significant role in the economic development of the country. (RBI 2OO7 2OO8 , pp 22 In addition to the above mentioned reasons the main motive of the researcher to highlight the challenges faced the public sector banks was because if these banks overcome their challenges they can mark a place for itself with the other leading banks. 1.7 STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY This dissertation is divided into five chapters which are as follows:- Chapter 1- This is an introductory chapter. It highlight the aims and objectives; purpose ; justification of the study. This chapter explains the structure/body of this dissertation . Chapter 2- This chapter forms a base/ platform for this dissertation. It consists of ideas and opinions put forward by scholars and different authors who have successfully researched on this field. The researcher has critically reviewed the literature also highlighted the key issues, ideas, arguments by different authors. This chapter mainly covers globalization , its characteristics, theory of globalization, Indian banking sector and challenges faced by the Indian banks. Chapter 3- Primary focus of this chapter is on the methodology adopted for this research. This will include the research design, data collection methods, research ethics, validity and reliability. It also includes limitations of this study. Chapter 4- This chapter explains the analysis of the data/information gathered . Interviews and questionnaires are critically analyzed to give a clear picture about the study. Chapter 5- The previous chapter of data analysis enabled the researcher to draw conclusions and provide recommendations which is described in this chapter, along with the research findings and research area which the researcher intends to cover and undertake next year after successful completion of this research. 1.8 SUMMARY This chapter explicitly explains the structure of this dissertation along with aims and objectives set up for the study by the researcher. It also explains about the research area, purpose and highlights the reason for selection of banking sector in Indian to study the impact of globalization.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Analysis of Women Characters in Victorian Literature

Analysis of Women Characters in Victorian Literature The common line of criticism made on Anne and Emily Brontes works reflects the widespread belief that the female characters are victims of male cruelty. Critics of the Bronte novels have highlighted a pattern of male dominance and female oppression. For example, Arlene Jackson, in The Question of Credibility in Anne Brontes The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, elaborates on womens powerlessness and male selfishness in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. In the same vein, Juliet McMaster, in her article Imbecile Laughter and Desperate Earnest in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, criticizes the male oppression of the woman in the novel which, she argues, is emblematic of the general treatment of women as they were given no voice in society. In addition, in Hapless Dependants, Women and Animals in Anne Brontes Agnes Grey Grey, Maggie Berg has equated the treatment of women to the treatment of animals by which women are relegated to a secondary position where they can form no true sense of the self. This trend of viewing women as the victims of male hegemony makes it challenging to market the idea that these female characters do, in fact, have enormous power that they utilize in their relationships with men. Therefore this research proposal uses Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights and Anne Brontes Agnes Grey and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall to issues pertaining to female behavior and male response that will indicate the extent of this female power. Through their strong wills, purposes, and desires, women characters in these novels often form mens characters, and define their behaviors. For example, in Wuthering Heights, Catherines headstrong and rebellious ways are partially responsible for Heathcliffs antisocial behavior, and it is through Catherines ideas of how men should behave and react to her demands that Heathcliffs character is formed and which leads him to his madness at her death. In Agnes Grey, Miss Murray manipulatively portrays women in a manner that makes Mr. Hatfield v iew women as helpless creatures in their need for rescue, protection, and provision. In light of this argument, how does the womans figuration of the patriarchal male character affect both the man and the woman,? Does this power result in ramifications for the woman as well? Are women aware of the power that they wield, and if they are, why do they blame the man for relationship problems? In my dissertation, I use evidence from the Bronte novels to show that it is womens unwillingness to engage in self-awareness and accountability that contributes to variant male behavior and perceptual outcomes. To that end, I argue that women have far more influence and power than is acknowledged by critics and this power and influence consistently contributes to the formation of male thinking and behavior. Summary Women have natural power in them. This power is not something magical or supernatural; it is part of their femininity. Women have intrinsic power by virtue of being women. In other words, a womans femininity is her powerful tool. Once used, this inherent power may constitute a strong weapon that influences mens lives either positively or negatively. An in-depth study of the emergence, construction, and outcome of female influence on men within myriad contexts is a sure way of vindicating the existence of this female power. Applying this theory to three British novels written by Emily and Anne Bronte Wuthering Heights, Agnes Grey, and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall- this study will draw important correlations between female abilities, capacities, and innate talents and the use of these elements to alter or supersede male potentialities. For example, Catherines misuse of her natural female strengths and talents is used to override Heathcliffs reticence against and desire to withdraw from her controlling manipulation, culminating in tragedy for both characters. Additionally, in Agnes Grey, the protagonists yearning for independence and power has influence on both men and women. Similarly, female power and control in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is measured through Helen Grahams interactions with the men in her life. In this novel, Bronte reveals this power and manipulative awareness in her protagonist, but the theme remains intact: women often have inordinate amounts of power and control over men in myriad realms of their lives. In light of this argument, the purpose of this dissertation is to explore the aforementioned three novels to show the outcome of the immense power possessed by women. These powers possessed by females are mainly psychological. In other words, they affect the intellectual, spiritual, emotional and interpersonal world of men with different outcomes for both genders. Introductory Statement of Background, Purpose and Thesis I will analyze The Tenant of Wildfell Hall and Agnes Grey by Anne Bronte and Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights with the aim of showing how they developed female characters whose power influence the men around them. The analysis will prove that this female power and influence affects the intellectual, spiritual, emotional and interpersonal world of men with different outcomes for both genders. The purpose of this study will involve comparing three British novels, written by sisters, whose female characters effect masculine changes, behaviors, and affect the outcomes of various situations. Demonstrating the application of feminine power in relationship dyads will support the hypothesis that women can manipulate, control, and cause harm to men and, through them, socio-political constructs which affect everyone. In addressing the research problem, a thorough review of the selected works, combined with a thorough literature review of existing studies will serve to show how this use of power manipulates or affects outcomes. My research topic is intended to be a significant contribution to socio-cultural, gender-based, and psychological awareness of conflict source and resolution. In other words, it will contribute to understanding the origins or beginnings of problematic relationships between men and women, and suggest how these problems can be solved. While the literature is rife with widely diverse discourse and study on feminism, the body of knowledge is seriously deficient in considering the research problem. That is because this issue requires a major paradigmatic change since the major outcomes of feminism have tended to reject feminine limitations while creating male-opposition toward many of its tenets. Signe Arnfred exposes a practical sense of feminine power in a non-western setting in her article entitled Sex, Food and Female Power: Discussion of Data Material from Northern Mozambique. In this article, she shows how women in a certain part of the world harness their mastery of feminine chores in both reproduction and family into a power tool that calls for respect from men (141). It is vital to note that what the characters in the Bronte novels do is not so much removed from what Arnfred tries to show in her article. The setting and tool might be different, but the game is the same. Arnfreds and the two Brontes women play on one critical point; namely the mans need. Man is need for womens domestic duties and reproductive function as well as their emotional interest. As the women in Arnfreds article employ this need to gain power, the Brontes women make use of the mens emotional need for to them as powerful tool. Abstaining from performing the chores (Arnfreds women) or paying attention (Brontes women) can have serious influence on the man. For example, in Wuthering Heights, Catherine leaves Heathcliff for Edgar, a move that creates confusion and antagonism between Edgar, Heathcliff and Isabella and ultimately leads to Heathcliffs madness. Had Catherine not chosen to withdraw her attention from Heathcliff, he would not have experienced the emotional turmoil th at he experienced. The question that may arises then is, was it within Catherines power to control the events through avoiding any association with Edgar? The answer to this is in the affirmative, and therefore she sought to push Heathcliffs emotions to the edge of a cliff. In fact, male dominance was common in Victorian times, as was female servility; But it is this servility that supported the dominance. Critics of the Bronte novels have noticed the male dominance in these novels, and identified the role women play in perpetuating this dominance. The feminine role in the advancement of male dominance is a power in itself, which, if withdrawn, can have a regulatory outcome on male behavior. In the article The Question of Credibility in Anne Brontes The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Arlene Jackson points out that, Anne Bronte also answers a question that other novels of her time do not ask: what happens to a marriage and to the innocent partner when one partner (specifically, the male) leads a solipsistic life, where personal pleasures are seen as deserved, where maleness and the role of husband is tied to the freedom to do as one wants, and femaleness and the role of wife is linked to providing service and pleasure not necessarily sexual, but including daily praise and ego-boosting and, quite simply, constant attention (203). On the surface, Jackson is asserting that powerlessness is another way of describing women. This is how she decodes the message that Anne Bronte is sending to society through her book. Obviously, numerous people agree with this position, considering the woman to be the victim, suffering silently without a means of escape from the cruel clutches of the man. But this is not the case because in the process of praising someone, there is the knowledge that the praise can be withheld. There is also the knowledge that the praise can lead to dependency as well as other undesirable manifestations of character that may be harmful to both the person lavishing praise, who is the woman, as well as the man, who is the recipient of the praise. An objective analysis of the message from Jackson reveals that men have a certain degree of dependency on the lavish praise they are showered with by women. As much as Jacksons work may have been an attempt to show the credibility of Anne Brontes literary skills, she helps in the identification of areas of female power that is sometimes wrongly interpreted to enhance female servitude and perpetuate male dominance. In the Bronte novels, it is not just praise that men get from women that create an atmosphere of dependency. As shown by Helen Graham, men can become dependent on the love they get from women. For example, under the chapter entitled Miniature, Anne Bronte shows how after showering Mr. Huntingdon with attention, she withdraws it, an act that upsets him. Maggie Berg, in her Hapless Dependants, Women and Animals in Anne Brontes Agnes Grey argues that, in a patriarchal society where women are faced with challenges of identity, expression and recognition- the general treatment of women is implied to be like the treatment of animals. This position is also shared by another critic of Anne Brontes The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Juliet McMaster, who takes the position that the Victorian period was characterized by a huge power imbalance that tilted heavily in favor of men. In her article entitled Imbecile Laughter and Desperate Earnest in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, McMaster talks of a Victorian power structure that did not allow women to have a say in society. All things were done according to the rules set by men for everyone (368). However Berg and McMasters view is harsh and seems to suggest that women have no place in their society. In support of the position that goes against this perception, several published works that have a stand on womens power in relation to men will be examined too. For example Naomi Wolfs critically acclaimed book entitled Fire with Fire: The New Female Power and How to Use it deconstructs McMaster and Jacksons positions on female victimhood. Wolf believes that women have always had more power than men. The biggest problem according to her is that women have not mastered the art of utilizing this power for their benefit (23-25). She further disagrees with women whose time is spent agonizing over a male dominated society where every woman is a victim (56). Evidently, Wolf is not ready to buy into the ideas of Jackson and McMaster. The areas where the latter two see oppression and injustice, the former sees opportunity and freedom that has not been seized by women. Wolf provides solid examples of women who have managed to live happily through the realization that female power is sufficient to combat what has come to be known as male dominance. She points out that politics, business, and family life are all potential areas of female excellence if women meet fire with fire and learn to use some of the tactics men use to manage affairs in society (34). This is the basis of her phrase, fire with fire. Applied to Brontes novels, Wolfs principles would appeal to female characters to not only be aware of how powerful they are, but also how to productively utilize these powers. Wolfs belief in the existence of feminine power greatly contributes to my thesis. Agnes, Helen, and Catherine, in addition to other female characters in the novels, are not the weak victims some critics view them to be. They are women who enjoy a great level of power that they use to influence their surroundings. Another female scholar who has done research on the issue of female power and influence is Margaret Beetham. In an article entitled Thinking Back Through our Mothers Magazines: Feminisms Inheritance from Nineteenth-Century Magazines for Mothers, Beetham, whose main objective is to survey the motherhood oriented magazines that existed in the nineteenth century, makes a refreshingly different statement based on what she discovers in the magazines she reads. As much as there was injustice in society during a greater part of the Victorian period, there was the acceptance that women were equal to men, but different. The admission of equality in these magazines that were published for mothers shows that the empowering element for women was present. What lacked was the will to pursue the path of equality through the elimination of obstacles that made it difficult for women to enjoy the trappings of a free life. It helps to point out that the writers and publishers of the magazines that Margaret Beetham analyzes in her work were both men and women, with most of them being in the hands of women. The significance of this is that women had access to the tools for empowerment as early as the Victorian time, a period that is attacked as highly paternalistic and patriarchal. This point is shared by Lisa Duggan and Nan Hunter. In Sex Wars: Sexual Dissent and Political Culture, the authors poignantly state that man and woman have always tried to live as a united pair, but the truth is that each is pulling in a different direction. The struggle is purely power based and is largely to blame for much of the s uffering that goes on in society (19-21). My study will be unique in the sense that it will depart from the traditional feminist readings and exegeses like that of Jackson and McMaster and utilize the arguments of the kind proposed by Wolf and others cited above. The dissertation will prove the existence of female power and influence in Victorian society, a society that is typically known as purely chauvinistic. Even in this analysis, my study will also go beyond the stress on the female power in the political and economic spheres as perpetuated by Arnfred, Wolf and Beetham. In contrast, I will focus on the psychological and personal dimension of feminine power. Through the critical examination of the Bronte novels, I will show that the power and influence held by women is not the literal political or physical power that society is used to, but rather the psychological one. It is partially the psychological dependency that men have on women that gives women the ability to manipulate circumstances and conditions in ways that can simultaneously hurt and heal both parties. I will use feminist theory to deconstruct the myth it perpetuates about the hegemony of man and the victimhood of woman. I will also use psychoanalytic theory to highlight the psychological power and influence women have on men. Through analyzing the three novels and borrowing from the other available materials and the theoretical framework, my study will purposefully prove that women have natural power and abilities. When these innate characteristics are applied to the intellectual, spiritual, emotional and interpersonal world of men, this power can control and define the opposite sex, with various results for both genders. The Design Chapter Summaries Introduction The introduction will set the pace of the dissertation by giving the background to my thesis. In this sense, the introduction will focus on reviewing the prevailing critical views that I will challenge in my dissertation. The aim will be to set up the idea that the dominant critical perspective views women as victims who are mistreated by men, a position that will be deconstructed in the later chapters of my dissertation. Such critical claims will include Arlene Jacksons The Question of Credibility in Anne Brontes The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Juliet McMasters Imbecile Laughter and Desperate Earnest in The Tenant of Wildfell Hal, and Maggie Bergs Hapless Dependants, Women and Animals in Anne Brontes Agnes Grey among others. Equally important, the introduction will survey some critical views that support the thesis. These include, Marilyn Graman and Maureen Walshs The Female Power Within: A Guide to Living a Gentler, More Meaningful Life and Dan Abramss Man Down: Proof Beyond a Reasona ble Doubt That Women Are Better Cops, Drivers, Gamblers, Spies, World Leaders, Beer Tasters, Hedge Fund Managers, and Just About Everything Else. In addition, Laura Donaldsons Decolonizing Feminisms: Race, Gender Empire Building will be used to reinforce the thesis. The rationale behind this literature review is to set the parameters that my study departs from and challenges. This departure will be illustrated in the chapters that follow. Chapter 1: The Bronte Women: The Dominant View This is the opening chapter of the dissertation. The purpose of this chapter will be to set the tone and lay the argument that will be refuted in later chapters. Thus, the focus will be on the picture painted in the three novels as far as women are concerned. The three sisters books present women as the abused and mistreated members of the society. For example, in Wuthering Heights, Catherine is depicted as a victim of Heathcliffs desires. Similarly, in Agnes Grey, the protagonists mother is portrayed as the gentle, loving woman who gives up her high life for the love of a poor man, Agness father. In The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Helen is shown as a victim not only of Arthur but also Gilbert, who is shown as the angry and irrational man who whips Lawrence and hurts Helen feelings on mere suspicion that she would be allowing Lawrence to court her while knowing that Markham is already into her. The chapter will review such depiction of women in the three novels in details. However, the point that will be highlighted is that a careful analysis of some of the events in the books enables the keen reader and analyst to have a more profound view of women, a view that shows that they are not the submissive women intended or viewed to be. Since the dissertation is about the provision of evidence towards the position that women are not the victims of male hegemony as they are thought to be, this first chapter will be critical in setting up the issue that will be opposed by use of analysis of both these primary sources as well as other credible secondary sources. In this regard, the link between this first chapter and the rest of the dissertation is that it will lay the foundation for the entire dissertation through the establishment of the contested opinion, which the rest of the dissertation will tear down, while building the alternative view. Chapter 2: The Bronte Women: The Hidden Face As chapter 1 illustrates the traditional analysis of the Bronte women, chapter 2 will provide a dissenting analysis to that proposed in the first chapter. Hence this chapter comes to form the crux of the dissertation as it elaborates on the thesis. The three Bronte novels will be critically analyzed in order to portray the often unseen powers of women. Areas where the female power appears in these novels will be highlighted to substantiate the assertion that women are not victims of male domination and abuse, but powerful members of the society whose powers, though not physical, can bring either unimaginable destruction or ultimate redemption. A careful analysis of the events and characters will be conducted to supports this assertion. For example, in Emily Brontes Wuthering Heights, Catherines misuse of her natural female strengths and talents is used to override Heathcliffs reticence against and desire to withdraw from her controlling manipulation, culminating in tragedy for both characters. In Anne Brontes The Tenant of Windfell Hall, Mrs. Helen uses her feminine power to emotionally abuse Mr. Huntingdon through the withdrawal of her affection, which leaves him mad and angry. Another example of the powerful nature of women is shown by Miss Murray who is determined to use her feminine power to ensnare Mr. Weston into falling for her before she gets married to Mr. Hatfield, to whom she is already engaged. Agnes aptly describes Mr. Weston as Miss. Murrays victim (Bronte 212). Susan McKernans article entitled Feminist Literary Theory and Womens Literary History: Contradictory Projects, will be used to create a critical dialogue in this chapter. The article illustrates how some women have sought to absolve females from all that goes wrong in relationships in particular and society in general. My argument in this chapter goes against this contention and proves that women are active participants in relationship management. Another powerful secondary source that will be used in this chapter is Laura Donaldsons Decolonizing Feminisms: Race, Gender Empire Building. This carefully written book will reinforce the thesis by showing how female power has more potential that most people in society are willing to accept. It will therefore support the idea that women can only be victims of men domination willingly or unknowingly, but otherwise, they ought to have the potential to stand up for themselves. In connection to the entire dissertation, this chapter brings up the theme of the paper. It agrees with the thesis and validates the argument. Chapter 3: Female Power: When Women Admit It This chapter will support the theme of the dissertation through the usage of female voices in proving the existence of female power. The aim is to show that the claim made in the dissertation is largely shared by women themselves, and therefore has credence to it. There is no better way to confirm that someone is in possession of something than that person coming out and admitting it himself or herself. This is what this chapter does by allowing female voices to come out and assert that women are indeed powerful in their own right. The use of these female voices will be targeted towards proving the thesis with reference to the major primary sources. Examples on the secondary sources include Signe Arnfreds article entitled Sex, Food and Female Power: Discussion of Data Material from Northern Mozambique. As illustrated elsewhere in the proposal, this reference will be used to prove how the Bronte women may take advantage of the mans need to exercise their power. Another secondary source that will used in this chapter is Margaret Beethams Thinking Back Through our Mothers Magazines: Feminisms Inheritance from Nineteenth-Century Magazines for Mothers. Her article is a clear admittance that woman had access to the tools for empowerment in the Victorian period. Equally important is Naomi Wolfs book, Fire with Fire: The New Female Power and How to Use it. Along with Beethams analysis, Wolfs argument greatly contributes to my thesis. As mentioned above, it substantiates the idea that Agnes, Helen, and Catherine, in add ition to other female characters in the novels, are not the weak victims some critics view them to be. They are women who enjoy a great level of power that they use to influence their surroundings. Further careful analysis of the primary sources will be done in this chapter to substantiate this point. For example, in Wuthering Heights, Catherines headstrong and rebellious ways are partially responsible for Heathcliffs antisocial behavior, and it is through Catherines ideas of how men should behave and react to her demands that Heathcliffs character is formed and which leads him to his madness at her death. In Agnes Grey, Miss Murray manipulatively portrays women in a manner that makes Mr. Hatfield view women as helpless creatures in their need for rescue, protection, and provision. The reference to the primary sources and connection to the overarching theme will provide the necessary flow and linkage for this chapter to the rest of the paper. In more precise terms, the women voices used to reinforce the thesis provide a connection to the second chapter which endeavors to show that women are not victims but powerful individuals. It also provides the groundwork for the following chapter which surveys the impact of the womens realization or lack thereof of feminine power. Chapter 4: Female Power: Realization by Women or Lack Thereof This chapter surveys the effects that emanate from the discovery by some women that they are in possession of immense powers. It also looks at what happens when some women fail to realize that they indeed have these feminine powers that the dissertation seeks to prove that they indeed exist. Again, Naomi Wolfs book, Fire with Fire: The New Female Power and How to Use it will be of great significance to this chapter as she argues that the realization of this power provides a solution for the supposed male dominance. In addition, The Least Angelical Poem in the Language: Political Economy, Gender, and the Heritage of Aurora Leigh  by L.Dalley will also be used. Dalleys article gives insight into the Victorian womens power and thus annuls any contention for the absence of this power in women even in the supposedly most patriarchal society. Once again, this will be done with reference to Bronte novels. The focus will be on how the Bronte females realization of their potential or lack thereof creates a great difference for themselves and for the men in touch with them. The instances where women have realized how powerful they are and used this knowledge to accomplish certain actions will be dealt with. For example, Helens realization of her artistic talent encourages her to leave her husband as it constitutes a source of income. In the same vein, Agness belief in her potential for leading an independent life make her start her venture as a governess, which adds to her experience and potential. In relation to the other chapters, this chapter will be a final verdict that indeed women have powers as it will demonstrate what happens when these powers, which chapters two and three will have shown exist, are put into use by those who know of their presence, or not used, by women whose ignorance insulates them from knowing the powers at their disposal. To a large extent, this chapter legitimizes the dissertation as it takes the argument to the level of observing the outcome of what the thesis claims. At this stage, the argument is not about whether women have powers or not, but about what happens when these powers are or are not used. Conclusion The conclusion will restate the thesis as has been validated through the argument in the preceding chapters. The major ideas that are raised in support of the thesis and some of the readings, both primary and secondary, that have supported or opposed the argument will be briefly revisited. All in all, the conclusion will emphasize the validation of the thesis as logically put through the dissertation chapters. Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources Bronte, A.  The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. New York: Harper Brothers. 1999. Brontà «, C., Brontà «, E., Brontà «, A. The Brontà « Sisters: Three Novels.  New York: Penguin Books. (2009).   Secondary Sources Abrams, Dan. Man Down: Proof Beyond a Reasonable Doubt That Women Are Better Cops, Drivers, Gamblers, Spies, World Leaders, Beer Tasters, Hedge Fund Managers, and Just About Everything Else .New York: Abrams Image.2011. Based on evidence borrowed from the social and business world, Dan Abrams presents a powerful narrative of how women are better players in different games of life. This message resonates well with the thesis whereby it supports the claim that women have powers that can be a force for good or evil, depending on their usage. This is in opposition to the view that women are victims in society, whose suffering in the hands of men is evident throughout history. Berg, M. Hapless Dependents: Women and Animals in Anne Brontes Agnes Grey.  Studies in the Novel, 34(2), 177+. (2002). Comparing animals to the oppressed nature of women under a patriarchal society, Berg provides a viable contrast to Greys perceived fall from a moral governess to one who commoditizes relationships as she comes to see animals in relationship to food. This perspective will provide catalysts to the thesis since Agnes Grey is largely considered a non-philosophical text but has deep undercurrents to feminine power and control. Beetham, Margaret. Thinking Back Through our Mothers Magazines: Feminisms Inheritance from Nineteenth-Century Magazines for Mothers. Nineteenth Century Gender Studies. Issue 6.2, Summer 2010. Web. March 18, 2011. This article gives a picture of how mothers lived in the 19th century. This information is largely based on magazines, and the overarching message is that women were not under the apron strings of men with limited authority. Therefore, this article is part of the evidence that the is needed to validate the thesis. Braithwaite, W. S. The Bewitched Parsonage: The Story of the Brontes. New York: Coward-McCann. (1950).   Braithwaite provides germane insights into the lives of the Bronte sisters which informs their writing and perception of the world around them as well as their own influence and power (or lack thereof) in their lives. This work will contribute valuable insights into the sisters defenses, perceptions, and belief systems among an unusually tragic set of circumstances. Bump, J. The Family Dynamics of the Reception of Art.  Style, 31(2), 328+. (1997). Bumps article has been selected for this work due to his exploration of the self as it applies to understanding and applying the work of the Bronte sisters. A socially isolated and individualistic view of the self that precludes the possibility of enduring attachments or responsibilities to another (328) fully informs the thesis upon which this work is grounded. Coontz, Stephanie. A Strange Stirring: The Feminine Mystique and American Women at the Dawn of the 1960s .New York: Basic Books.2011. Stephanie Coontz is responding to the work of Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique. She agrees with Friedan that women may have undergone suffering in society, but they had the powers to alter these circumstances. Therefore, this book is in line with the assertion made in the thesis. Dalley, L. L. The Least Angelical Poem in the Language: Political Economy, Gender, and the Heritage of Aurora Leigh.  Victorian Poetry, 44(4), 525+. (2006). A decidedly secondary, perhaps even tertiary source to this work, Dal