Sunday, November 24, 2019
China - Pure Land scriptures, such as the "Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sÃ »tra", were among the first Buddhist sutras to be translated into Chinese. In 402, the monk Huiyuan, basing himself on the "Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sutra", founded the White Lotus Society (Bailianshe) on Mont Lushan, which was at the origin of the Lushan tradition of Chinese Pure Land Buddhism. The same sutra was used by Zhiyi (538-597), founder of Tiantai School, to develop his own interpretation of Pure Land. - The Shandao Tradition follows mostly the "Threefold Pure Land Sutra". This began with Tanluan (476-542) but owes its name to Shandao (613-681) who emphasized the practice of chanting the Buddha's name as the sufficient condition to be born in the Pure Land. This tradition includes also masters such as Daochuo (562- 645), Huaigan (?-?) and Shaokang (?-805). Although it did not survive the anti-Buddhism persecution of 845 in China, it is this tradition that was to develop later in Japan. The Cimin Tradition goes back to Cimin (Huiri, 680-748), who visited Gandhara. His teachings combine meditation (chan) and discipline (vinaya) within a Pure Land framework. This syncretism characterizes later Pure Land Buddhism in China (as well as in Indochina and Korea), trough the works of masters such as Yongming (Yanshan, 904-976), Yuanzhao (Zhanran, 1048-1116) and Yunqi (Zhuhong, 1535-1615). - Commentaries on Pure Land were also written by masters of almost every school of Chinese Buddhism, including Jicang (549-623) of the MÃ ¢dhyamika (Sanlun) school, Kuiji (532-682) of the VijÃ ±Ã ¢navÃ ¢da (Faxiang) school, and the Korean Wonhyo (617-686) of the Avatamsaka (Huayen) school. China - Pure Land scriptures, such as the "Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sÃ »tra", were among the first Buddhist sutras to be translated into Chinese. In 402, the monk Huiyuan, basing himself on the "Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sutra", founded the White Lotus Society (Bailianshe) on Mont Lushan,... Free Essays on Confucism Free Essays on Confucism China - Pure Land scriptures, such as the "Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sÃ »tra", were among the first Buddhist sutras to be translated into Chinese. In 402, the monk Huiyuan, basing himself on the "Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sutra", founded the White Lotus Society (Bailianshe) on Mont Lushan, which was at the origin of the Lushan tradition of Chinese Pure Land Buddhism. The same sutra was used by Zhiyi (538-597), founder of Tiantai School, to develop his own interpretation of Pure Land. - The Shandao Tradition follows mostly the "Threefold Pure Land Sutra". This began with Tanluan (476-542) but owes its name to Shandao (613-681) who emphasized the practice of chanting the Buddha's name as the sufficient condition to be born in the Pure Land. This tradition includes also masters such as Daochuo (562- 645), Huaigan (?-?) and Shaokang (?-805). Although it did not survive the anti-Buddhism persecution of 845 in China, it is this tradition that was to develop later in Japan. The Cimin Tradition goes back to Cimin (Huiri, 680-748), who visited Gandhara. His teachings combine meditation (chan) and discipline (vinaya) within a Pure Land framework. This syncretism characterizes later Pure Land Buddhism in China (as well as in Indochina and Korea), trough the works of masters such as Yongming (Yanshan, 904-976), Yuanzhao (Zhanran, 1048-1116) and Yunqi (Zhuhong, 1535-1615). - Commentaries on Pure Land were also written by masters of almost every school of Chinese Buddhism, including Jicang (549-623) of the MÃ ¢dhyamika (Sanlun) school, Kuiji (532-682) of the VijÃ ±Ã ¢navÃ ¢da (Faxiang) school, and the Korean Wonhyo (617-686) of the Avatamsaka (Huayen) school. China - Pure Land scriptures, such as the "Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sÃ »tra", were among the first Buddhist sutras to be translated into Chinese. In 402, the monk Huiyuan, basing himself on the "Pratyutpanna-samadhi-sutra", founded the White Lotus Society (Bailianshe) on Mont Lushan,...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
PRESENTATION and PRESENTATION REPORT - Essay Example onsideration because of its deep-rooted influence in the nation and among its people, which determines not only the personal lives of Chinese, but their business practices as well. Insofar as international staffing is concerned, this implies a great divergence in values between the home and host countries, especially in terms of language and business practices. However, on the other hand, certain cultural values also demands particular personal characteristics from potential managers. An example is the Confucian concept of filial piety, hierarchy and respect for age, which requires managers to be at least over forty in order to gain the respect of Chinese staff and local business partners. The second is ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive labour market. With the surge of foreign firms expanding operations in China during the last decade, the demand for qualified local managers has increased, exceeding supply. Thus, foreign firms looking into hiring host-country nationals must compete with other companies to get the cream of the crop. For companies venturing in China for the first time, attracting qualified local managers will therefore be difficult, while retaining them will be an even greater challenge. Last is the growing number of Western-educated Chinese nationals. Labelled as Ã¢â¬Å"hot commoditiesÃ¢â¬ because of their language and cultural attributes and knowledge of Western business practices, they seem to embody the best mix of competency and culture. Given these realities, the company must therefore adopt a polycentric approach to international staffing in China such that host-country nationals must be recruited to manage the subsidiaries in their own country while parent-country nationals occupy positions at corporate headquarters due to their sensitivity to local conditions. In this respect, the following requirements must be kept in mind: Last, because of the need for managers who are both culturally-sensitive to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment and knowledgeable in
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Summary - Assignment Example The use of a mycorrhizal fungus in the experiment was employed leading to effective data collection on the modes of communication. The plants used the fungi hyphae network to communicate with each other including the transfer of nutrients between the plants. Plants communicate on the issues including insect attack. It was found that plants reacted to the scent or volatile organic compounds by developing defense or emitting chemicals that attract aphid eating wasps which feed on the aphids infesting the area. The separation of the plants by covering those using plastics and pots gives a clear indication of the communication process. The separation of the plants both using pot and plastic bags in the air, led to no communication between the plants. Thus, the findings supported the analogy of communication between plants. Therefore, it can be proven without doubt that plants communicate effectively. From the research of Richard karban and Babikova, it is evident that communication between plants is a continuous and regular. In conclusion, the communication between plants was not understood until the findings of the various researches were
Monday, November 18, 2019
Argumentive Evaluation - Essay Example This paper will critically evaluate how the author built his argument, his tone, mood, purpose for his argument and describe his audience. Stoll (248) argues that giving glitzy gadgets to a child who cannot read or write in class is of no good. He claims that is more painful to direct little children to computer screens than making them read a few pages of a book. However, the author fails to understand that introducing a child to technology at an early age prepares him/her for the modern world that is driven by technology day by day. It is easier to introduce technology to children because they learn faster than adults; thus, teaching them how to use computers even if they can hardly read or write gives them a chance to learn other things such as games, which is more fun than forcing them to read a page in a book. The author Stoll (248) also argues that teaching machines drive students away from reading and writing and even prevent them from attaining scholarships. This is because c omputers take the ability of students to understand questions before writing answers; thus, they substitute the ability of students to reflect and think critically, which involves originality, concentration and intention. Nevertheless, the author is hasty in concluding that computers substitute the ability of students to think critically. Computers do not provide straight forward answers to all questions. This means that students who use computers are required to read and understand the content provided in the computer so that they can choose the best in order to make their own conclusions. Thus, a lot of understanding and critical thinking is required. Moreover, the students are likely to have more fun while searching for information in computers than spending painful hours in the library reading many books. Hence, technology makes learning fun and effortless. As stated by Stoll (248), technology encourages intellectual passivity. He argues that students are likely to focus more on having fun than learning. As a result, they develop inability to exercise patience, persistence, and attentiveness. However, the author fails to explain how students develop distaste for these inabilities by using technology to learn. On the contrary, students are able to exercise patient, attentiveness and persistence when using technology. This is because for them to understand what they are doing they need to be patient and pay attention to the instructions given by their teachers. Moreover, Stoll (248) argues that taking learning as fun cheapens the process of learning and the product. This means that by integrating fun into learning, teachers no longer focus on teaching but entertaining students, which results in poor quality of education. The students also focus more on having fun than learning and scholarships lose their meaning. However, this is not true. This is because if teachers would focus only on teaching, the students would likely to get bored with time. The truth is that everybody gets bored with routine and especially being in a classroom all day without any form of entertainment. If students get bored in class, they may not understand anything that the teacher says. For this reason, incorporating fun in the learning systems makes the learning process even more fun and the students develop more interest in learning; hence, the improving the
Friday, November 15, 2019
Reducing Carbon Emissions in Construction and Housing Introduction In recent times new buildings have been the main focus in terms of improving energy efficiency in the construction industry. This agenda has been led by the introduction of minimum energy performance standards in Part L of the buildings regulations back in 2006. In recent times the code for sustainable homes has already set the target of net zero carbon emissions by 2016 for all new domestic buildings. Recent Part L amendments are geared towards ensuring the target is met. The proposal for 2010 is for a saving of 25% in CO2 emissions per year compared with 2006 levels. (Rabin, 2009) These challenging standards proposed for the building regulations in regards to new builds means that the industrys attention will continue to focus heavily on new buildings. However, new buildings only account for 1-2% of the total building stock each year, meaning that, if the government is to get close to its target of cutting carbon 80% by 2050, (Summers, 2008) significant CO2 reductions will need to come from existing buildings. 87% of the homes that will be standing in 2050 are already built, (DCLG, 2008) which is why government, industry and home owners are all looking into the benefits of refurbishing the existing housing stock. Aims The main aims of the research project are to: Investigate how existing housing can be upgraded to reduce carbon emissions Investigate whether eco-refurbishment is cost-effective in terms of both monetary costs and Co2 emission reduction. Objectives The main objectives of the research project are: To introduce the concept of eco-refurbishment To explain why upgrading an existing housing stock is necessary To investigate options for fabric service upgrades. Existing housing stock Carbon emissions output The code for sustainable homes is pushing forward in terms of the new build sector and the aim of zero carbon construction by 2016. The focus on the new build sector overshadows the existing housing stock despite it having an even bigger role to play in terms of reducing Co2 Emissions. Current predictions estimate that in 2050, the existing (pre-2006) housing stock will still make up two thirds of the UKs housing. This stock is typically poorly performing when measured by todays heightened energy efficiency standards, and hence it is essential that measures are taken to reduce its associated carbon emissions. (Greenbang, 2009) Each household in the UK creates around five and a half tonnes of carbon dioxide a year. Thats five and a half times the weight of the rubbish a household throws away in a year. Its also nearly double the carbon dioxide emissions that the average car produces in a year. (Energy Saving Trust, (n/d)) Options for fabric upgrade Priorities From the outset consideration must be taken as to which measures are cost effective in terms of both monetary cost and Co2 emission reduction. The options for fabric upgrade can be split into ten specific groups- Walls Most post -1930 homes have cavity walls and still the majority in the UK do not have the benefit of cavity-fill insulation. (Smith, 2004) Immediate increases in comfort, as well as lower energy bills could be met if this deficiency was to be rectified. Roofs Poorly insulated roofs offer rising heat the ideal escape route. Floors The British climate causes floors to be a particular drain in terms of heat lost. Windows Double Glazing has gained a hold on the housing sector, not least because of the assertive marketing tactics of some double glazing companies. In part, this is because it is perceived as a fashion accessory to a home. (Smith, 2004) High performance double glazing which uses low emissive glass is now required by the building regulations. Doors Double glazed doors can now be manufactured in a similar fashion to double glazed windows. Space heating and hot water A number of central heating systems remain in use within the UK which are well below current best practice. Air tightness straightforward draught-proofing can have a benefit out of all proportion to its cost. However, if the draught sealing has been carried out really effectively, it may be necessary to provide fan-assisted ventilation. (Smith, 2004) Ventilation Controlled ventilation is necessary to provide a healthy internal environment. Lighting and Appliances Appliances and white goods are often major energy drains, especially fridges and freezes. (Smith, 2004) When replacing appliances it is vital the appliance carries an energy saving recommended certificate mark Renewable and low carbon technologies Renewable technologies can offer additional reductions in environmental impact. The energy saving trust Best practice in refurbishment The energy saving trust produced a report in which a refurbishment standard was designed to give optimum balance of environmental performance and practicality. Using the best practice specification ensures that refurbishment work is carried out to the highest practical standard, and the maximum cost and carbon savings are realised for residents, and the environment. (The Energy Savings Trust, 2008) Table : Summary of Energy Saving Trust best practice in refurbishment standard Areas of Improvement Walls Where possible, walls should be insulated to achieve a maximum U-value of 0.30W/mÃâÃ ²K. Roofs For best practice, aim for a U-value of 0.16 W/mÃâÃ ²K when installing insulation between the joists or rafters. Flat roofs should be insulated to achieve a U-value of 0.25 W/mÃâÃ ²K or better. Floors Exposed floors should be insulated to achieve a maximum U value of 0.20-0.25 W/mÃâÃ ²K. Windows Replacement windows should have a BFRC rating in band C or above. Any retained windows should be draught-stripped. Doors Replacement doors should have a maximum U-value of 1.0 W/mÃâÃ ²K if solid, or 1.5 W/mÃâÃ ²K if half-glazed. All existing doors should be draught-stripped Space heating and hot water Domestic wet central heating systems and hot water should be installed to meet central heating system specification (CHeSS Year 2008 standard HR6 or HC6. Where electricity is the only option, the recommendation contained within Domestic heating by electricity should be followed Air tightness Air leakage paths can be identified using a pressure test and removed by undertaking remedial sealing. The best practice recommendation is to aim for an air permeability of 5mÃâÃ ³/(hmÃâÃ ²) at 50Pa. Ventilation A purpose-provided ventilation system should be installed. Lighting and appliances When re-wiring dedicated lamp fittings should be installed which accept only low-energy bulbs. Ideally greater than 75% of all fixed luminaries should be dedicated low energy fittings. Low energy appliances should be specified which carry energy saving recommended certification mark. Renewable and low carbon technologies After all basic energy efficiency improvements have been undertaken the specification of renewable technologies, such as solar hot water heating or photovoltaics, is encouraged where appropriate to further reduce environmental impact. Source: Figures taken from Roadmap to 60%: Eco-refubishment P.8 The Building Fabric Insulation Assumptions The costs and paybacks shown in tables under each area of potential fabric upgrade are approximations made by the energy saving trust; they are based on a gas heated semi-detached house with 3 bedrooms. A gas price of 3.80p/kWh has been used in their calculations. External Walls To reduce the amount of heat lost through external walls, the installation of insulation is required. Three common methods are traditionally used, the most cost effective being cavity wall insulation. Alternative methods include external wall insulation, or internal insulated dry-lining, these are generally used if the wall has no cavity. Cavity Wall Insulation Typically all masonry cavity walls built since the 1930s are suitable for the installation of insulation. Polystyrene beads or mineral fibre with a U-value of 0.30W/mÃâÃ ²K are blown in the wall cavity through a hole. It is recommended that installation be undertaken by an approved company using an approved system under the British Board of Agreement (BBA). Internal Wall Insulation When either a cavity wall or solid masonry wall are un-suitable for cavity insulation then internal wall insulation can be a cost effect solution. This is most cost effective when the existing plaster is being renewed. The wall should be insulated to achieve a maximum U-value of 0.30W/mÃâÃ ²K. (Energy Saving Trust, (n/d)) External Wall Insulation External wall insulation offers an alternative method of insulating a masonry wall. The installation and design is a specialist job, and advice should be sought from an approved company. External wall insulation is the most expensive of the three methods (Smith, 2004) but can be cost effective when other works are being carried out. (City of Westminister Council, (n/d)) Pitched Roofs Typically insulation is fitted between ceiling joists and rafters, covering the ceiling area. Any pipes which run through the loft space need be insulated as best possible. The insulation must be at least 250mm thick and have a U-value of 0.16 W/mÃâÃ ²K. Two layers of insulation is preferred, one between joists and one across the top. Loft Ventilation is required to maintain air flow. Flat Roofs For best practice insulation should be placed above the structure as part of the roof finish, referred to as a warm deck. If this is not possible the insulation may be fitted within the roof structure, often referred to as a cold deck. To keep costs low it is recommended to replace the insulation in roofs when the covering requires replacing. A rigid board material of 100mm thickness should be used; a U-value of 0.25 W/mÃâÃ ²K or better is required. Ground Floor Heat is typically lost through the ground floor; the amount lost is dependent on the shape and size of the flooring area. It is best to insulate a ground floor whilst works are being carried out. The floor should be insulated to a U-value of 0.20-0.25 W/mÃâÃ ²K. Intermediate Floors Intermediate floors allow for rooms over an un-heated space, such as a garage or storage room to be insulated. Where there is access from below this can be cost effective. (City of Westminister Council, (n/d)) Mineral fibre insulation should be used to achieve a U-value of 0.20-0.25 W/mÃâÃ ²K. Windows Traditional windows are usually single glazed without draught proofing and by todays standards offer a poor standard of energy efficiency. (City of Westminister Council, (n/d)) Switching to double glazed windows offers many benefits. Double glazed windows consist of two specially made glass panels with a space in between them; a gas such as argon is generally filled in this cavity as a form of insulation. They also often have a UV coating, which can be customised to the British climate. In many instances when frames are worn out and need replacing cost effective energy efficiency improvements can be made. External Doors Double glazed doors as well as windows are now a common sighting throughout the UK. They offer a much better standard of thermal insulation in comparison to that of a solid timber door. Glazing units in doors can be made to the same standards as windows. (City of Westminister Council, (n/d)) And as such should be replaced when frames are worn out. Draught Proofing and Ventilation A ventilation and airtightness strategy should be part of any refurbishment works. (The Energy Saving Trust, 2007) The main objective of draught proofing and ventilating is to provide a balance between energy efficiency and the indoor air quality. Air leakage is the infiltration of air via unwanted gaps and cracks in the building envelope. Too much air leakage leads to heat loss as well as discomfort from cold draughts. As thermal insulation standards improve the proportion of total heat lost via infiltration increases significantly. Ventilation of the dwelling is desirable and necessary to remove moisture and other pollutants from the air. Airtightness The potential to improve airtightness of a dwelling will depend on the nature of the existing building and the type of works being undertaken. It is therefore difficult to set absolute targets but the best practice recommendation is to aim for an air permeability of 5m3/(h.m2) @ 50Pa. (The Energy Saving Trust, 2007) Some simple measures can be taken to improve the airtightness. Draught proofing around windows, door; sealing around service pipes which pass thorough floors, walls and roofs; block up unused chimneys, but include ventilation to the room by means of a ventilator. Ventilation Purpose-provided ventilation (e.g. ventilators and windows) and extract fans are required to replace stale indoor air with fresh outdoor air. (The Energy Saving Trust, 2007) Adequate ventilation is needed for both the comfort and the safety of occupants, as it removes or dilutes pollutants that accumulate in the dwelling. Once the dwelling is sufficiently airtight, controlled ventilation can be installed. One of the more beneficial ventilation systems is the single room heat recovery ventilator. This is a development of the extract fan which incorporates a heat exchanger. It recovers 60 per cent or more of the heat in the outgoing air. (The Energy Saving Trust, 2007) This can then be used to preheat incoming air. Options for Service Upgrade Domestic Heating Hot Water By upgrading predated boilers a significant reduction in energy consumption can be achieved. Furthermore it is very cost effective. If the house has been insulated prior to the replacement or installation of the energy efficient boiler further improvement in the energy efficiency of the house can be felt. The followings points need to be considered when choosing an energy efficient domestic heating system The system is correctly sized to warm up the dwelling from cold taking account of heat gains from the sun, people, lights and appliances It uses fuel as efficiently as possible Provides heating and hot water only when required and where needed Have controls that are easy to use and understandable. The installation of an energy efficient boiler such as a condensing boiler will reduce running and costs and will in most cases add value to a property. The energy performance standard for new and replacement boilers was raised in England and Wales in April 2005, Northern Ireland in November 2006 and Scotland in May 2007. When replacing a boiler, a condensing boiler (with a seasonal efficiency of greater than 86 per cent) must now be installed in the majority of cases. (The Energy Saving Trust, 2007) Heating assumptions Below, savings are shown for the upgrade of a condensing boiler from a G rated boiler to an efficient A rated boiler. These savings are approximations made by the energy saving trust and are based on a gas heated semi-detached house with 3 bedrooms. Savings assume a gas price of 3.80p/kWh. Lighting Electricity for lights and appliances (including cooking) can account for a significant proportion of total energy costs and CO2 emission. Energy demand for lighting can be reduced by: Using energy efficient lamps and luminaries (light fittings). Directing light to where it is needed. Controlling lighting use. Making the most of daylight. Immediate results can be made in the first three areas through basic home improvements. 75% of all fixed luminaries should be dedicated low energy fitting for best practice. The annual savings shown in the table below are based on a home owner changing 3 light bulbs to energy efficient light bulbs a year. Table : Annual Savings and Paybacks for Energy Efficient Light Bulbs Measure:Ã Energy-efficient light bulbs Annual saving (Ã £/yr):Ã Up to Ã £30 CO2saving a year:Ã Around 136kg Source: http://www.reduceyourco2.co.uk/tips.html Appliances Appliances account for a large proportion of total domestic energy use. As energy efficient appliances use less electricity, they are less expensive to run and are responsible for lower CO2 emissions. (The Energy Saving Trust, 2007) Appliance assumptions The table below shows the energy ratings and savings when upgrading appliances. These savings are approximations made by the energy saving trust, they also assume replacing an average appliance purchased new in 1998 with an Energy Saving Recommended model of similar size and an electricity cost of 12.96p/kWh. Source: http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Energy-saving-assumptions Renewable and low-carbon technologies Several types of renewable technologies can generate electricity for a dwelling, including photovoltaics (PV), wind and micro-CHP. Other renewable or low-carbon technologies can also provide heating and hot water, such as heat pumps, biomass and solar hot water. Solar Water Heating By installing a solar water heater the house can use the suns energy to produce hot water. For a more cost effective approach it is advised to install a solar collector where other heating improvements are already being undertaken. There are two main types of solar water heaters, a flat plate collector or evacuated tube collectors. Both types have liquids in them which collect heat from the sun, this then passes through a coil in a hot water cylinder. These systems are typically only used for water heating, and are rarely used to provide space heating. Solar Water Heaters are amongst the most cost-effective renewable energy systems for existing dwellings. During the summer months, a typical system can supply between 80 and 100 per cent of hot water demand, the percentage being much lower in winter, of course. (The Energy Saving Trust, 2007) Even when it is decided not to include solar water heating, it is worth making properties solar ready, to allow systems to be added later with minimal disruption. Photovoltaics PV panels allow solar energy to be converted into electricity. The panels can generate power to satisfy some of buildings electrical demand even in the northern latitudes, in some cases all of the buildings electrical demand can be met. The PVs are versatile and can be installed in numerous locations, glass roofs and conservatories being one option, a more common option being to install an array of them on a south facing roof. Grants Most of the grants and offers you can benefit from are provided by three main groups. The Government Energy Suppliers Local Authorities The Government A number of schemes are funded by the government, in some cases up to Ã £3,500 can be given to help people improve their heating and energy efficiency. In England the scheme is known as Warm Front, in Wales it is known as the Home Energy Efficiency Scheme. The eligibility criteria for the schemes differ between both countries, some schemes you need to be in receipt of certain benefits, whilst others are available to anyone over a certain age. Guidance as to the availability of these grants can be found on their websites. Examples of Home Energy Efficiency Scheme eligibility criteria; Home Energy Efficiency Scheme (Grant of up to Ã £2,000) Householders who either have a child aged under 16 or are pregnant and have been given maternity certificate MAT B1 and are in receipt of one or more of the following benefits: Income Support Working Tax Credit (with income less than Ã £16,040) Council Tax Benefit Child Tax Credit (with income less than Ã £16,040) Housing Benefit Income-based Jobseekers Allowance Income-related Employment and Support Allowance Source: http://www.heeswales.co.uk/do-i-qualify.htm The following websites offer further examples and information regarding eligibility criteria. Warm Front grant (England) http://www.warmfront.co.uk/do-i-qualify.htm Home Energy Efficiency Scheme (Wales) http://www.heeswales.co.uk/do-i-qualify.htm Energy Suppliers The Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) came into effect in April 2008, obliging electricity and gas suppliers in Great Britain to help reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from homes. (Energy Saving Trust, (n/d)) This means energy suppliers with a certain number of customers operating in Great Britain are obliged to achieve targets for improving home energy efficiency. The suppliers therefore provide a range of offers which significantly reduce the cost of installing energy efficiency measures. Local authorities Most Local authorities provide grants and offers for local residents to install certain energy efficiency measures in their home. (Energy Saving Trust, (n/d)) Case Study There are a number of case studies which show the benefits and tribulations of eco-refurbishment, one of particular interest is describe below. Nottingham Eco-home Architect Gil Shalom and his wife Penney Poyzer set out the task of refurbishing their Victorian home whilst reducing emissions by 85%. As well as reducing emissions by 85% they hoped to use only low impact materials. In the process they hoped to demonstrate how green design can appeal to a wider audience and be an aspiration lifestyle choice. (Sustainable Development Commission, (N/D)) Overview A typical 5-bedroom semi detached Victorian house that was refurbished over a six year period in a low energy and ecological way. Dating from around 1898, it was in a very run-down state and has been thoroughly upgraded by the owners, to provide a good example of eco retrofit. It is a demonstration of a variety of eco-friendly features including super-insulation, solar hot water and wood burning boiler, rainwater harvesting and waste composting systems. (Sustainable Development Commission, (N/D)) The project set out specific priorities to aim for during the refurbishment, they were to: Upgrade thermal performance through insulation, heat recovery ventilation and air tightness and thermal mass improvement Be as autonomous as possible in energy, water, sewage treatment and food Experiment with different low-impact materials It was estimated that an overall energy saving of 85% in terms of Co2 and 75% in terns if costs was made. This was a direct result of the refurbishment work which took place. Image 1 shows the areas of the house the refurbishment took place. The list below corresponds to Image1. (Sustainable Development Commission, (N/D)) Flat-Plate solar collectors for heating water Roof insulation 300/400mm thick (shredded newspapers) Roof lights with insulating low-emissivity glass Natural plasters- clay and lime based Super insulated hot water tank 100mm ozone friendly drylining to front face to maintain brick appearance 150mm external wall insulation with rendered finish Space saving bath and thermostatic shower controls Heat recovering fans Environmental-friendly paints Draught lobby triple- and double-glazed timber windows treated with natural fungicides and stains Energy efficient appliances Second hand reclaimed furniture tripped floorboards Copper rainwater goods with filters for rainwater harvesting 160mm natural floor insulation Rainwater storage for use in WCs and washing machine Low-flush toilets Non-PVC waste pipes Composting chamber for solid waste from WCs Separator lets liquids drain off and solids into composting chamber Decking Organic garden utilizing the principles of permaculture Table: Case Study- Energy and costs at the Nottingham Eco-home Research findings and discussion Fabric and Service upgrades In cases considered cavity wall insulation is shown to be highly cost-effective, however the current savings potential from the installation is beginning to tail off. The resultant reduction in Co2 emissions following the installation is a clear indication that the measures taken are cost effective in terms of both monetary cost and Co2 emission reduction. From the outset this was a main priority. Table : Costs and Paybacks for Cavity Wall Insulation issued by the Energy savings trust illustrates these potential savings. Although cavity wall insulation is reaching saturation point in terms of potential savings and cost-effectiveness, its counterpart solid wall insulation is not likely to reach this point for the next few years, this is a result of slower uptake. There are still significant potential savings to be had. Currently solid wall insulation is barely a cost-effective upgrade unless other work is being carried out. This may be the cause of a slower uptake. Advances in the technology behind solid wall insulation are likely to improve over coming years and the potential savings could be realised quicker as a result. The annual CO2 saving shown in Table : Annual Savings and Paybacks for Internal Wall Insulation shows significant savings could be made despite not being the most cost effective in terms of monetary cost Table : Annual Savings and Paybacks for Roof Insulation illustrates that loft insulation is a cost effective way to save energy and reduce domestic carbon emissions. The greatest saving is made when the loft previously had less than 150mm of insulation. If the loft previously had 150mm of insulation or more, the table shows that it is not cost effective to add more. Floor insulation can offer some potential Co2 savings, but is only truly cost effective if the floor is undergoing repair anyway. Table : Annual Savings and Paybacks for Floor Insulation gives us a figure of two years for the payback time which isnt the most cost effective. Older, less eco-friendly windows are slowly being replaced by low-emissivity double glazing, the potential savings will be realised gradually over the coming years. Currently replacing windows unnecessarily is highly inefficient in terms of cost-effectiveness, this is mainly because of high capital costs. Table : Annual Savings and Paybacks of Installing Double Glazing illustrates the potential reductions in Co2 emissions is significant, despite not being very cost-effective. Draught proofing is one of the more cost-effective fabric upgrades, though the potential Co2 emission savings are fairly low. To gain the most beneficial results from draught proofing, central heating upgrade, as well as glazing upgrade is advised. The full potential of draught proofing is realised when combined with these upgrades. Table : Annual Savings and Paybacks for Condensing boiler upgrade suggests that the installation of a class A condensing boiler and heating system offers potentially large Co2 emission savings, whilst also being one of the more cost-effective service upgrades a dwelling can undergo. Again the true potential of the installation is only realised when the dwelling receives draught proofing and glazing upgrades. Replacing at least 3 light bulbs with energy efficient bulbs is proven by Table : Annual Savings and Paybacks for Energy Efficient Light Bulbs to be both cost-effective and offer small savings of Co2 Emissions. It is one of the easier service upgrades to achieve. Table : Appliance Energy Ratings and Savings shows upgrading to energy efficient appliances of class A or more is a cost-effective energy measure, significantly cutting down on Co2 emissions, especially if all appliances are replaced. There is potential to save a considerable amount of carbon emissions with the use of solar water heating; as illustrated in Table : Annual Savings for installation of Solar Water Heater. The cost-effectiveness is currently very inefficient though with advancements in technology this may become more cost-effective within a few years. PV offer similar results to solar water heaters, despite offering significant savings in Co2 emissions; they are still not a cost-effective service upgrade. The cost far outweighs the reduction in Co2 emissions. Analysts predict that the cost of PV will fall dramatically over the coming decades, slowly becoming more cost-effective over time. Case Study The case study looked at was the Nottingham Eco-home, an ambitious refurbishment of a Victorian house. The owners set out specific priorities at the start of the project which they were aiming to achieve; Upgrade thermal performance through insulation, heat recovery ventilation and air tightness and thermal mass improvement Be as autonomous as possible in energy, water, sewage treatment and food Experiment with different low-impact materials The case study shows that as ambitious as it was initially, with the correct information and guidance, as well as clear aims objectives, eco-refurbishment offers attainable goals. Table : Case Study- Energy and costs at the Nottingham Eco-home clearly indicates that significant reductions in the energy costs led to savings per year for both money and Co2 emissions. With additional upgrades the table shows that even more improvements are to be had. Although some of the fabric upgrades and service upgrades are slightly out dated by todays standards, the case study shows that cutting Co2 emissions is very achievable, and the benefits of eco-refurbishment should not be overlooked The owners clearly achieved the specific goals they set out initially; an eco-refurbishment was carried out with beneficial results in regards to the cost-effectiveness and savings in Co2 reductions. Summary and Conclusion 87% of the homes that will be standing in 2050 are already built, (DCLG, 2008) There is evidence that the eco-refurbishment of these homes is definitely a viable option, though whether or not they will achieve the proposal for a 80% reduction in Co2 Emissions by 2050 (Summers, 2008) is still unclear. The cost-effectiveness and carbon savings of the fabric and service upgrades looked at varies tremendously. Many Assumptions have to be made when calculating the cost-effectiveness and annual Co2 saving of an upgrade, be it fabric or service. This is partially due to there being so many varieties and options for the upgrades. Technological advancements take place daily, and will have a dramatic impact on many of the upgrades looked at, the cost-effectiveness as well as the potential for carbon savings will rise slowly year by year. There are almost 25 million dwellings throughout the UK, if only half of these were to adopt energy efficient measures, the savings would be highly significant in driving the UKs housing stock emissions down towards the target 80% r
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
There is No Certainty in Dover Beach How can life or anything be so wonderful, but at times seem so unbearable? This is a question that Matthew Arnold may have asked himself one day, while writing Dover Beach. This is a poem about a sea and a beach that is truly beautiful, but hold much deeper meaning than what meets the eye. The poem is written in free verse with no particular meter or rhyme scheme, although some of the words do rhyme. Arnold is the speaker speaking to someone he loves. As the poem progresses, the reader sees why Arnold poses the question stated above, and why life seems to be the way it is. During the first part of the poem Arnold states, "The Sea is calm tonight" and in line 7, "Only, from the long line of spray". In this way, Arnold is setting the mood or scene so the reader can understand the point he is trying to portray. In lines 1-6 he is talking about a very peaceful night on the ever so calm sea, with the moonlight shining so intensely on the land. Then he states how the moonlight "gleams and is gone" because the "cliffs of England" are standing at their highest peaks, which are blocking the light of the moon. Next, the waves come roaring into the picture, as the y "draw back and fling the pebbles" onto the shore and back out to sea again. Arnold also mentions that the shore brings "the eternal note of sadness in", maybe representing the cycles of life and repetition. Arnold then starts describing the history of Sophocle's idea of the "Aegean's turbid ebb and flow". The sea is starting to become rougher and all agitated. Also the mention of "human misery" implies that life begins and ends, but it can still be full of happiness, and unfortunately, at the same time, sadness. "The Sea of Faith was once, too, at the full, and round earth's shore." The key word in that stanza is once, because it implies that he (Arnold) used to look at the sea in a different way than he does now. Throughout the whole poem, Arnold uses a metaphor to describe his views and opinions. Now he only hears its "melancholy, long, withdrawing roar." It seems as though Arnold is questioning his own faith. The whole poem is based on a metaphor - Sea to Faith.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Few educational thinkers have been more widely influential than Paulo Freire. His classic text, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, has been studied by numerous Left intellectuals, political activists, radical educationists and liberation theologians for almost four decades. FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and theories have been applied by academics, school teachers, adult literacy coordinators, church leaders, counselors, psychologists, social workers, health professionals, language learning specialists, and prison rehabilitation workers, among others. In addition, Freire has inspired (directly or indirectly) thousands of books, articles, interviews, theses, videos, and even theater productions over the years. When he died on 2 May 1997 Freire left an extensive body of written work and a legacy of memorable educational and political achievements. In this light, this paper reviews and critiques Pedagogy of the Oppressed and how this book relates to my work as an elementary teacher. Overview of the Book Drawing on his experiences with rural peasant communities and the urban poor in Brazil and Chile, Freire theorized an intimate connection between education and the process of becoming more fully human. Chapters 1 and 3 of Pedagogy of the Oppressed set out FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s ontological and ethical ideas in comprehensive and lucid detail, and Chapter 4 provides an extensive consideration of the politics of domination at a macro level. The discussion of education is primarily located in Chapter 2, and literacy does not figure as prominently as it does in a number of FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s other texts. Pedagogy of the Oppressed develops the distinction between banking education and problem-posing education. Freire rejects a banking model of the teaching process in favor of a problem-posing approach, and encourages students to adopt a curious, questioning, probing stance in exploring educational issues. Freirean education demands a deep commitment to the goal of building a better social world, and necessitates active resistance against oppressive structures, ideas, and practices (Roberts, 2000). Some of the theoretical areas explored in Pedagogy of the Oppressed include questions about structure and rigor in liberating education, the nature of critical reading and writing, legitimate and oppressive uses of authority in the classroom, and the process of study. Freire also explores the role of intellectuals in resisting dominant ideas and practices, dialectical thinking and education, the dynamics of dialogue, the distinction between facilitating and teaching, and the bearing language difficulties have on education. In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Freire writes that most of Latin Americans living in economic and politically dependent part-societies feel powerless and have internalized the ruling groupÃ¢â¬â¢s view of them as unalterably stupid. Before participating in the culture groups, words and other codifications in movies and television are seen by them as tools that can be wielded by the rich and powerful only, while they are fated to be objects of culture. This attitude changes as they become conscious of their feelings and social position. Then they begin to see that their condition worsens if they submit to the seductions of the modern consumer culture, spending what little money they have for packaged entertainment and manufactured goods. They discover they are giving up their birthright as creators of culture, turning against their own art and artisan work to gain the illusion of participation in the modern society. They are further motivated as they discover that only they can codify their unique experience. In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Freire reports that after analyzing the unreal and sometimes contemptuous messages in many standard texts available to them, they want to create their own texts. Critique Freire views manÃ¢â¬â¢s nature which is humanistic and optimistic. For Freire, education is humanizing when it is critical, dialogical, and praxical (Roberts, 2000). Man is unique among animals in his ability to shape himself and his environment. While all things change, only man is a purposive agent in change. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s nature is to continually create himself through an interactive process of purposive reflection and action in life situations. Wherever these two aspects of human behavior are divorced, men are victims of a social system which encourages them to see themselves as acted upon, passive things, rather than subjects who act upon the world. Conforming, apathetic behavior is the evidence of repressive relationships. Welfare programs which rob men of their initiative amount to false generosity. For Freire, education should increase political consciousness. In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, he argues that the oppression of peasants is partly maintained by their acceptance of their situation as an unalterable fact of existence. Freire feels that this fatalism reflects an internalization of the oppressor; thus, the oppressed is not for himself, but is ambivalent or even hostile to the idea of liberating himself. For this reason, liberation cannot be given to the oppressed; rather, the oppressed as an organized collective must take an active part in liberating themselves (Pitts, 1972). According to Torres (1993): Ã¢â¬Å"FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s global purpose transcends a criticism of the current educative forms, and goes on to virtually become a criticism of culture and the construction of knowledge. In short, the basic assumptions of FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s works lie in a dialectical epistemology for interpreting the development of human consciousness in its relationships with reality. Ã¢â¬ (p. 125) For Freire, the primary problems and issues of education are not pedagogical issues. Instead, they are political issues. The schooling system does not change society; instead, society can change the schooling system. However, the educational system may play a vital role in a cultural revolution, which implies the conscious participation of the masses. As a cultural praxis, critical pedagogy contributes to lifting the ideological veil in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness. In addition, revolution itself is a meaningful pedagogy for the masses Ã¢â¬â Freire has spoken of revolutions as a continuing political workshop. FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal is an anti-authoritarian though directivist pedagogy, where teachers and students are teaching and learning together. Since education is the act of knowing, teacher-student and student-teacher should engage in a permanent dialogue characterized by its horizontal relationship, which does not preclude power imbalances or different everyday living experiences and knowledge. This is a process taking place not in a classroom, but in a cultural circle. Ã¢â¬Å"There is not a Ã¢â¬ËdiscursiveÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge but a knowledge starting from the living everyday and contradictory experience of teachers-students/students-teachers. Certainly this set of notions dismantles the most important framework of authoritarian pedagogy and, to this extent, appears as a Ã¢â¬Ëcounter-hegemonyÃ¢â¬â¢ practice and ideology within teacher training institutions. Ã¢â¬ (Torres, 1993, p. 126) One thing I like about Pedagogy of the Oppressed is that the oppressed are not seen as a passive force. In the book, Freire states that oppression must cease and it can; but the oppressed must liberate themselves. How can the oppressed, as divided, unauthentic beings, participate in the pedagogy of their liberation? According to Freire, for them to be able to wage the struggle for their liberation, peasants and urban poor must perceive the reality of their oppression not as a closed world from which there is no exit but as a limiting situation which they can transform. The problem that arises from banking education is that the ruling classes are not merely contented with the defense of their material privileges; they also insist on the preservation of their cultural hegemony. The culture that co-exists with their economic dominance is one that demands silence, fatalism, superstition, self-contempt, subservience and all forms of false consciousness on the part of the masses. Education provided by these dominant classes must therefore be authoritarian and banking education. How then is one to carry out FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s program under the existing social order? Freire is aware of the problem and the further one reads, the more one senses that the Pedagogy of the Oppressed is really written for subversive elements already in action (Mkandawire, 1975). FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s egalitarian methodology for education as espoused in Pedagogy of the Oppressed is intended to be politically subversive of oppressive regimes. It seems likely, however, that it could serve to legitimate opposition to any routinized form of delegated authority. For Freire, development is nonmaterial, and the unit of development is not the nation but the individual. For these reasons, it is unlikely that any government will attempt to follow FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s methodology to its most radical implications (Pitts, 1972). The Pedagogy of the Oppressed has attracted many criticisms over the years. Those who consider education as a technical or neutral process have complained that FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s approaches politicize teaching and learning. FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to provide Ã¢â¬Å"packagesÃ¢â¬ has irritated those who seek clear-cut methodological solutions to educational problems (Roberts, 2000). The use of the male pronoun in Pedagogy of the Oppressed and other early writings has been particularly attacked. Also, the idea of promoting a critical mode of consciousness has been questioned. Furthermore, FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on social class (at the expense of gender and ethnicity) in his early analyses of oppression has been rendered problematic by a number of contemporary educational theorists. Others suggest that Freire should have devoted more space in his books to class theory. Some critics have argued that the pedagogy proposed by Freire, contrary to its professed aims, constitutes a form of cultural invasion. Finally, as post-modern ideas have gained increasing currency in recent times, universalist assumptions in FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s ethic, epistemology, and pedagogy have come under fire. Despite these criticisms, it is undoubted that Pedagogy of the Oppressed has left an important legacy to education. Application Freire knew the world and problems of teachers regarding pedagogy. The Pedagogy of the Oppressed answers my questions on how to move my students to become self-motivating learners. I learned that I could not move them. Following FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s pedagogy, teachers could only help their students learn to move themselves. The thoughts conveyed in the book are indeed seditious but they did not transform me overnight. However, FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s theories have planted on me seeds of a new way of thinking. Upon reading the book, I realized that the learners and their mindset is more fundamental than the curriculum Ã¢â¬â not more important, it is just more fundamental. In addition, I learned that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the world determines what can be learned. According to the book, learning is dependent on environment and emotion as well as on presentation, materials, and text. Importantly, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed suggests the danger to learning of oppression in the classroom environment. Thus, there should be no hierarchy in the classroom as the teachers and the students are both learners in this environment. Accordingly, instructions and curriculums should be oriented towards the learners creating and solving their own problems. In other words, knowledge construction and collaborative learning are encouraged. Conclusion This paper has reviewed FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s Pedagogy of the Oppressed and how this book relates to my work as an elementary teacher. This discussion of FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas on formal education has been brief and selective. In so being, it does not communicate the immense richness of his thoughts on such matters as the universal nature of manÃ¢â¬â¢s humanity FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s rejection of and banking model of the teaching process in favor of a problem-posing approach. However, if the readers have gained from this review some appreciation of how FreireÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts are applied in the classroom environment, the review will have served its purpose.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Creating and Ethernet VLAN Essay Creating and Ethernet VLAN Essay Creating an Ethernet VLAN (For use with MI424WR Rev A-D, Firmware 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11) This document provides directions for creating a VLAN, and dedicating one Ethernet port on the MI424WRÃ¢â¬â¢s built in switch for its use. Part 1 Ã¢â¬â Creating the VLAN Ethernet Interface 1. Login to the BHR and navigate to Ã¢â¬ËMy NetworkÃ¢â¬â¢ then Ã¢â¬ËNetwork ConnectionsÃ¢â¬â¢ 2. At the bottom of the Ã¢â¬ËRule NameÃ¢â¬â¢ column click the red Ã¢â¬ËAddÃ¢â¬â¢ 3. Select the underlying device, normally, Ã¢â¬ËNetwork (Home/Office)Ã¢â¬â¢ and click Ã¢â¬ËNextÃ¢â¬â¢ 4. Assign the VLAN an ID, can be any number between 1 and 4094 and click Ã¢â¬ËNextÃ¢â¬â¢ 5. On the Summary, add a check-mark for Ã¢â¬ËEdit the Newly Created ConnectionÃ¢â¬â¢ and click Ã¢â¬ËFinishÃ¢â¬â¢ 6. On the new connection, at Internet Protocol, select Ã¢â¬ËUse the following IP AddressÃ¢â¬â¢ and enter a LAN IP address for this interface a. (example) IP Address Ã¢â¬â 10.0.0.1 b. (example) Subnet Mask Ã¢â¬â 255.255.255.0 7. At DNS Server, select Ã¢â¬ËUse the following DNS Server AddressesÃ¢â¬â¢ a. (example) Primary Ã¢â¬â 18.104.22.168 b. (example) Secondary Ã¢â¬â 22.214.171.124 8. At IP Address Distribution, select Ã¢â¬ËDHCP ServerÃ¢â¬â¢ a. (example) Start IP Address Ã¢â¬â 10.0.0.2 b. (example) End IP Address Ã¢â¬â 10.0.0.254 c. (example) Subnet Mask Ã¢â¬â 255.255.255.0 9. Click Ã¢â¬ËApplyÃ¢â¬â¢ at the button of the page to save the configuration 10. Back in Ã¢â¬ËNetwork ConnectionsÃ¢â¬â¢, select the new rule to edit it, it may be named Ã¢â¬ËEthernet 2Ã¢â¬â¢, rename it Ã¢â¬ËVLAN xÃ¢â¬â¢ (x = the VLAN ID number) if you wish, and click Ã¢â¬ËApplyÃ¢â¬â¢ to save the change Part 2 Ã¢â¬â Dedicating the Ethernet Port on the Switch 11. In Ã¢â¬ËNetwork ConnectionsÃ¢â¬â¢ again, click the Ã¢â¬ËAdvancedÃ¢â¬â¢ button 12. In the Ã¢â¬ËNetwork (Home/Office)Ã¢â¬â¢ section click Ã¢â¬ËEthernetÃ¢â¬â¢ to edit it 13. Click the Ã¢â¬ËSettingsÃ¢â¬â¢ button 14. On Ã¢â¬Ë4 Ports Ethernet SwitchÃ¢â¬â¢ select Ã¢â¬ËShowÃ¢â¬â¢ 15. Open and edit the port (1-4) that you want to assign the VLAN to 16. In Ã¢â¬ËPort SettingsÃ¢â¬â¢ change the Ã¢â¬ËIngress PolicyÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬ËTagged
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
TECHNOLOGY CHANGING POLITICAL DYNAMICS essays TECHNOLOGY CHANGING POLITICAL DYNAMICS "People Power II" as the events of January 17 to 20 are now called was different from first "People Power" in February 1986 in three key ways. First, "People Power I" resulted from manipulation of vote counting in the snap elections and triggered by a military faction that was forced to come out in the open after its coup plot was discovered, while "People Power II" resulted from a series of allegations of massive graft on the part of a president and triggered by perceived collusion among 11 Estrada administration-aligned senators to silence a move to present key evidence in the impeachment case. Second, it took almost two decades for civil society to respond forcefully to allegations of massive graft and corruption, human rights violations and a number of other crimes before "People Power I" erupted; and only a little less than three years for the same society to depose a leader who was perceived to be aping the object of hate of the first revolt. The third distinction, however, is a first in Philippine maybe even Asian and world revolutionary history: "People Power II" showed the power of the Internet and mobile communications technology not to mention broadcast media not only to shape public opinion but also to mobilize civil society when push came to a shove. Indeed, "People Power II" demonstrated how the Filipinos used these new technologies to topple an impeached official when the constitutionally prescribed impeachment process bogged down. True, the indispensable ingredient of an irate public pushed to the wall cannot be ignored in the equation. But the fact is it would have taken longer to mobilize people who were otherwise not included in the organized opposition had it not been for new technologies at the ready disposal of the man of the street. And in intense situations like the events that unfolded in those fateful five days of January, a few...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Catalonia - Term Paper Example The climate of Catalonia varies depending on the location, such as the areas along the coast, the inland, up in the mountains, or within the valleys. In the provinces on the edge of the coast and part of inland Barcelona, the climate is subtropic with hot and dry summers of around 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and cold winters, though it gets colder the closer to the shore the province is. The rest of inland Catalonia is hotter in the summer than in other locations, reaching temperatures as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit, and cooler during the nights. In these regions, Catalonia gets the majority of its rainfall during spring and autumn. The valleys, however, with their oceanic climate, have their wettest season in summer, and often experiences freezing rain and subzero temperatures during the winter months. Throughout the year, snow is a common occurrence in the Pyrenees mountains. CataloniaÃ¢â¬â¢s flora and fauna is considered to be among the most incredible throughout Spain. Catalonia, Barcelona specifically, contains sixty unique parks, with a combined total of 140 different trees, including figs, cypresses, and cedars, which are common to the Mediterranean. Despite the wonders found in the parks of Barcelona, the mountains of Catalonia is where the majestic beauty of nature truly flourishes. Ã¢â¬Å"With beechwood and evergreen oak forests, extraordinary rock formations, glacial lakes and thousands of plant species, the Catalan Pyrenees are one of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest natural wonders (Shubert, 1992).Ã¢â¬ In the spring, the meadows of the Pyrenees are covered with pheasantÃ¢â¬â¢s eye narcissi, fritillaries, jasmine, trumpet gentians, and Pyrenean hyacinths. The autumn season is graced with red and gold Montpellier maples and downy oaks, and the meadows are then spotted with crocuses and purple merendera. Come winter, the Pyrenees is decorated with irises and orchids. Vall dÃ¢â¬â¢Aran displays these floral delights year round, and Augues Tortes is home to the lake of Sant Maurici and forests fit to burst with Scots pine and silver fur. Catalonia is considered to have Ã¢â¬Å"a greater diversity of wildlife than any other region of Spain (Williams, 1994).Ã¢â¬ In the Pyrenees, one can find the marmot, which is a large rodent, the goat-like isard, or wild boar as they sniff out truffles. Other present creatures include badgers, otters, and ibex. While they are difficult to find, many having just been reintroduced into the wild, Catalonia is also home to the Iberian lynx and various bears and wolves. In the mountains, the rivers and meadows are teeming with the Pyrenean brook salamander, the painted frog, asps, and a unique variety of dragonflies and butterflies, as well as the giant peacock moth, which is EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s largest insect. Located alongside the Mediterranean Sea, Catalonia has a variety of rivers and lakes that are fed from the sea. The main rivers that connect with the Mediterranean Sea are the Ebre, Llobregat, and t he Ter. There are two primary basins in Catalonia, Ebro and the main Ã¢â¬Å"one that comprises the internal basins of Catalonia (White & Aviva, 2010)Ã¢â¬ , all of which flow into the Mediterranean. There is also the Garona river basin that meets with the Atlantic Ocean, but it takes up an insignificant portion of land. Though there are small lakes spotted throughout Catalonia, the majority of them can be found in the Pyrenees, with the largest being Banyoles, a remnant of the ice age. CataloniaÃ¢â¬â¢s History Before Catalonia became the Catalonia we know today, it
Friday, November 1, 2019
Consensual Relationship Agreements - Research Paper Example According to evidence, about 75% of the companies do have the CRA policy about workstation romance. Experts agree that the policy is exceptionally crucial because workplace affairs are inevitable. Discussion This discussion contributes to the controversy on the issue of CRA policy within the work environment. It aims to define CRA and argue for its benefits in the workplace. In addition, it will provide counter argument against CRA use and ethical issues involved in its use, as well as other options apart from CRA that will redress workstation relationships. Benefits of CRA in workplace Workstation affairs are inevitable. Experts agree that when clusters of individuals work together for a week, month or several years, there is bound to develop some form of attraction. Similarly, concerning attraction, it is not a personÃ¢â¬â¢s position that put them together, but physical attraction and mutual interests. Employees cannot help who they get attracted to and why. In most cases, it is instant, while, in other cases, it may take some time. The more managers reject office relationships, the more it occurs. Therefore, offices and companies should have CRA policy to guide and direct office relationships at all time, (Pierce, Karl & Brey, 2012). ... The CRA policy keeps office romance under track, prevents favoritism and ensures that the behavior does not infringe or offend other workers in the workplace. The contract does alleviate crude behavior and sexual harassment, instead; it permits individuals who are attracted to each other to develop an affair without guilt, secrets, stress and fear, (Tyler, 2008). The policy is an authentication of their affair being deliberate and consensual, warranting that the relationship statutes do not influence the dynamic of workstation ethical infrastructure. The parties in relationship agree to adhere by the managersÃ¢â¬â¢ antidiscrimination, workstation conduct policies and anti- harassment policies. Several employers and workers find that consensual relationship agreement can be advantageous and detrimental in the workstation, influencing personal affairs, workstation infrastructure and profitability. Counter argument Some scholars argue against consensual relationship agreement and stat e that workstation relationships can create various issues that cause poor work performance. Some argue that workers involved in the affairs can be blamed for poor judgments Ã¢â¬â the ability to make fair, actual, and the better decisions centered on the condition at hand. Similarly, braches of morals refer to infringing the ethical standards or codes of behavior in an organization, which involves but not restricted to, counterfeiting information, interest conflict, sexual harassment, and braking organizational codes of conduct. Productivity lots are a crucial argument against workstation affairs. When workers spend more time concentrating on their romance affairs leaving little time for workplace activities, and thus, minimizing the productivity of workers, (Tyler,