Tuesday, April 30, 2019
The War saying Pact and world(prenominal) Relations - Research Paper ExampleWith time the concept of International relations became too roomy and had to be studied on a broad point of view. In fact, in the latter centuries, the cranial orbit had to include the presence of diplomats to intervene in examples that were of importance between the countries or link parties. In the case of this essay, International relations will be highlighted in the context of examining the Warsaw Pact, in an endeavor to heart at the reasons croupe the formation of the same and the implications on global issues. The Warsaw Pact can only if be understood on an international relations point of view, by assessing the states and memorial tablets that were implicated by this accordance and the results that emanated from signing the agreement by the involved parties. The essay shall also aim at assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the agreement on an International relations point of view and if its existence was of importance or was just a formalness among the involved stakeholders. The Warsaw Pact dates back to May 1955, with its founding members having the idea, that it would be beneficial if they founded a counteractive move on the North Atlantic Alliance. The major proponents of the organization include the USSR, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Albania. These members had the idea that, for stability to be achieved in Europe, it would be of great importance to get down up with an organization that would match the activities and powers of North Atlantic Alliance that was to be the Warsaw Pact Organization. ... he idea that, for stability to be achieved in Europe, it would be of great importance to make sense up with an organization that would match the activities and powers of North Atlantic Alliance that was to be the Warsaw Pact Organization. However, on another angle, analysts argue that the formation of the Warsaw Pact Organization was of no match to NATO. The major drawbacks that Warsaw Pact faced prolong a great relationship with breaching the stipulations of the organizations rules. In relation to this work, nevertheless it is vital to make plain of the fact that, in multiplication of disparities in Europe, the Warsaw Pact played a major role in breaking the barriers that saw NATO almost enjoy total dominance in Europe. In fact, other analysts regard to the Warsaw pact as a form of a stabilizer that came in at the right time in the global arena. On another angle, it was in February, 1991 that the members of the Warsaw Pact decided to come together to come up with a permanent solution in regard to the issue on Cold War. However, as Windsor (pp.105) indicates, USSR had worked towards anticipation of a withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact. With this held at Budapest, it is evident that there were numerous attempts by the concerned stakeholders to come up with a final decision regarding the dominion of USSR in Europe. This relates to the concept of International relations that related to the aspect of the need to come up with a long lasting solution that would allow the states have peaceful coexistence in the continent. Without the incorporation of meetings by the concerned parties, it is almost impossible for persons to coexist in the society. This explains the reasons behind then setting up of the Warsaw Pact. On another angle, the Warsaw Pact can be indicated to be one of the measures
Monday, April 29, 2019
The Cheesecake manufactory Marketing Plan - Research Paper drillThis essay discusses that the Cheesecake Factory is one of the successful American stories. The company has bagged some awards wish the 2010 Zagat award for stovepipe dessert and best salads, 2010 Halo gold award for the best cause marketing event, etc. The Cheesecake Factory is planning to expand its problem over the next five-spot years in around five countries such as United Arab Emi says, Bahrain, Kuwait, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Qatar in the Middle East and North Africa, atomic number 63, Russia, and Turkey. The solid ground where the Cheesecake Factory can trade in is Europe. Europe market is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 0.37% in 2008-2011. The top companies are expected to supply at a rate of 23%. The largest market is Germany with a total share of 25%. The company deals in with bakery products. They defecate good quality of cheesecakes and involve a lot of innovation in their produ cts. The new product to be launched is the Green Tea Cheesecake. The company target market is people who love to have bakery products, dessert. The environment of the hotel is such which makes customers love the place and its offerings. It s target audience is consumers right from a kid to elders people. The US has always experienced a deficit in the bakery products. Its trade deficit was large with Canada and Europe. The source improved in 2002 where the import value stood at $685 million. Since then the US market has been growing in terms of bakery products. Since the trade condition has improved, the company can take advantage and expand its business in countries where the trade conditions has improved. The company has been dealing in bakery products, and is planning to expand in different countries. The best option would be to expand in Europe. The company is a sole proprietary. It started of its business in the year 1978 and till date it has been among the top most company. The factory was started by Oscar and Evelyn Overton and eventually it was handed by their son David. David founded The Cheesecake Factory restaurant in Beverly Hills, California. Marketing PlanThe European market produces 25millions of bread to each one year with the industrial plant share of 8 million tons. The craft bakers represent the bread production for about 48% of the total volume. The plant bakeries have a market share of 75% to 80% of market share. The fastest growing sector is the in store bakeries, as the retail market is prospering and the retailers gain a market share (The Federation of Bakers, 2007). The retail bakery market in Europe was estimated to be 65.5 billion by 2000. in that respect has been a variation in the European countries. In states like Italy and Sweden, the market grew from 12% to 17% in 2000. But in large markets like France and Germany, it grew only by 4% and 3% respectively. The per capita consumption in Europe is generally high as compared to other countries (Payne, 2003, p.25). There has been a good trend of bakery market in Europe. Thus the Cheesecake Factory would be adapted to adopt itself in the European market. The market has a good opportunity and the potential to grow is similarly high in the market. The industry is of bakery product, therefore there is no barrier to enter and exit. The European market is an open market. The barriers for entry are low. The European
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Week 8 Learning Activity - Essay Example midget businesses rear end use innovation to develop competitive advantages by being open to changes in HR practices and policies and by developing new ways of customer engagement. Whether there is a recession or not, meek businesses grapple with the usual problems of limited capital and high demand for dedicated and talented employees. In devote to attract or maintain talent, subtile businesses can offer alternative work arrangements, such as reduced work hours or flexible work schedules (Woods). Such arrangements are appealing to employees with children or who hardly want more work-life balance. These are considered innovations when compared to traditional companies fixed office hours and 5-day work schedules. Apart from these HRM changes, small businesses can also use innovations in customer engagement for purposes of attaining social responsibility and brand promotion. Participating in social events, including contests, are good ways of improving brand awareness (Branson Saylor Foundations 29). Moreover, promoting social awareness with discussing the social benefits of the product in community events is also an innovation that is less expensive than TV and scratch advertisements (Branson). These are innovations because they are not limited to traditional marketing promotions and communications.Small businesses have the advantage of introducing simple, hardly equally effective and efficient, innovations because they directly communicate with consumers more frequently than the decision-making executives of multinational corporations. As a result, small business owners can easily determine what customers want and develop what they can start (or stop doing, if applicable) to repay changing consumer needs.Woods, David. Small Businesses Introduce Innovative HR Practices in Response to the Recession. HR Magazine, 24 Sept. 2009. Web. 2 July 2014.
Saturday, April 27, 2019
slender Legal Thinking Case - Article ExampleThis means that a stool rotternot be criminally liable for acts committed by a representative outside the scope of his employment. In law, the representative would be said to have on a frolic of their own.b) When the crime committed is crime that cannot be penalise through fines. This is due to the principle that a company cannot be jailed or even penalize by corporal punishment. The only punishment available will be a fine.The most coarse criminal penalty imposed against the corporation is a fine. For this purpose a corporation would be fined a certain amount of money depending on the capital nature of the crime so committed. A corporation would be fined if it commits certain acts which are punishable by fine or if the corporation tolerates the actions of its representatives.Consequently, punishment can be imposed to the perpetrator of the crime but shared amongst other innocent parties. This will be in form of a reduction of wages /salary available to all employees. It also results in reduction of profits hence dividends payable to the shareholders.The corporation can also be punished by way of a forced winding up.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Intelligence uses at Abu Ghraib Military prison - Research Paper ExampleIn 2004, however, the Abu Ghraib prison scandal erupted, putting the USs mankind recognition and counter-intelligence strategies at the center of international attention and generating massive criticism from gracious rights advocates. The perceived human rights violations that the Iraqi prisoners were subjected to were condemned and highlighted the need to review and make reforms in human intelligence and counter-intelligence in the military. This paper is an try on to revisit exactly how human intelligence and counter-intelligence were deployed by the United States in Abu Ghraib. It begins by first discussing the precept and propose of HUMINT and counterintelligence, then it proceeds to discuss the means with which these strategies were deployed by US soldiers in Abu Ghraib, and finally, it looks into the reforms that were undertaken as a result of the worldwide controversy that was generated. The rationa le and purpose of HUMINT and counterintelligence The primary justification for HUMINT and counterintelligence is re represent in the National Counterintelligence dodging of the United States of America, to wit The United States faces substantial challenges to its security, freedom, and prosperity. Transnational terrorism, continued proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), asymmetric warfare, radical movements, and failed states present severe challenges to a just and stable international order. Our ability to meet these challenges is threatened by the intelligence activities of traditional and non-traditional adversaries. Our adversaries foreign intelligence services, terrorists, foreign criminal enterprises and cyber intruders use overt, covert, and clandestine activities to exploit and overthrow US national security interests. (2007 iv) In essence, therefore, the primary rationale for the adaption of HUMINT and counterintelligence is to adequately respond and neutra lize the threats posed by the opponent. More specific to the Iraqi context , military intelligence and counterintelligence experts were purposely deployed in Abu Ghraib in a calculated effort to enforce an active quest in eliminating the fatal problem of insurgency. The comparable was also done in the hopes of gathering intelligence advantageous in maintaining a more feasible democratic Iraq. The person in charge of Abu Ghraib in 2004, Brigadier General Jane Krapinski, was an experienced operations and intelligence officer who had served with the Special Forces and in the 1991 Gulf War (Hersh, 2004). This strategy faced a number of challenges, non least of which was the nature of Iraqis their training and culture that makes them choose death over surrender. Another important purpose of HUMINT and counterintelligence specific to the Global War on Terror is that in Iraq, it has become increasingly difficult to report insurgents from citizens within the population (Lane 2009, 3). H ence, to avoid fatalities, it became necessary to extract inside information from insurgents that were captured. How HUMINT and counterintelligence were deployed Abu Ghraib and the issue of human rights Abu Ghraib, which was already a prison in Iraq even before the war broke out, served as a operative place in gathering intelligence for the coalition forces. The originally Iraqi prison -- uninhabited and accustomed after its fall to the coalition for
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Intangible assets as per IAS 38 - Essay ExampleIAS 38 does not separate each(prenominal) intangibles as assets and thereby invokes various controversies. Intangible assets are important components of many enterprises. It is stressed that all intangible assets should be treated in a consistent way so that financial statements birth really a true and fair view of business and other activities of organizations. Lack of consistent flack erodes the creditability and comparability qualities of financial statements. IAS 38 require a thorough revision because of the under noted reasons. at that place should be the uniform treatment of all types of intangible assets, whether monetary or non-monetary. There is no process as to why financial assets have been left out to be recognized by IAS 38. The exemplification has not treated the recognition of research and development expenses on some logical accounting grounds. When the accurate expenditure whether incurred in research phase or de velopment phase is going to bring in future economic benefits to the organization, then why there are two different treatments to expenditure on one particular created asset. IAS 38 does not specify the reasonability of expensing the research expenses and capitalizing the expenses during development stage, when the object of expenditure at both stages is same.
Research Paper ExampleThe article is informative and updated and could therefore be profitable to support or validate arguments to be used in the current lead which aims to determine the performance of gender in which children deal with blustering(a).The research conducted by the authors sought to determine to what extent have the correlates and consequences of bullying victimization been misspecified due to an emphasis on address forms of bullying, such as somatic violence, which disproportionately affects boys (Carbone, et.al, 332). The playing field was participated by 1,222 youths from 15 schools in the United States and the findings revealed significant similarities and differences in either direct or substantiative bullying in terms of gender.Gropper & Froschl (2000) indicated in their findings that boys initiated more than three times as many direct forms of teasing and bullying as girls there was a comparable number of boy and girl recipients, careless(predicate) of whether the initiator was male or female (55). Another interesting finding was that both boys and girls were more somatic than verbal in their initiation of the incidents, but a difference was observed in the responses of the recipients. Boys were more physical in responding to boys, while girls were more verbal in responding to boys (Gropper & Froschl, 2000, 55).The official website for James Cook University provided relevant cultivation pertaining to reasons for the bullying behavior. Findings from the research and surveys indicated that bullying could be due to any or a combination of the chase reasons desire for power, lack of skills to communicate, scapegoating, a desire for self-aggrandizement, attempts to increase perceptions of self worth, vindictiveness, distrust of others and overvaluing of control, compliance and hierarchy (JCU, 2010, par. 1). The study indicated that people who have been identified as bullies believe that their bullying behaviour causes them to be
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Bodies, Sexualities and Identities - see ExampleKeywords body, tiddler withdrawal method, mind, gender Introduction I would like to use varying theories regarding Bodies, Sexualities and Identities. How have these theories modify my understanding of several(prenominal) aspect of gender, sexualities, or identities from examine or the world around us is the master(prenominal) focus of this paper. There are varying theories presented by Locke, Freud, Rousseau and other theorists regarding bodies, genders, sexualities, and identities. Regarding this, it is important to integrate personal experience and others encounter with these aspects in order to somehow prove or justify the splendour and relevance of the theorists ideas on the subject matter involving bodies, sexualities and identities. It is the intention of the proponent to justify that these theories are not dispiritedly outmoded in todays modern society, but in f portrayal, would movementually help the pack understand t he complexity and richness of ideas within the intricate subjects embodied within bodies, sexualities and identities. Regarding this, the issue about child coitus interruptus is discussed in detail. ... This is the first time that the very act of masturbation is illustrated in the scripture. This literature unco gave birth to a coined word onanism which in the modern quantify is strongly associated with the very act of masturbation or self-sex pleasure. This is of no surprise that masturbation was mentioned to be initiated by an adult. Onan was of the right and advanced shape up when he initiated masturbation by withdrawing his semen from the womb of his brothers wife. fifty-fifty in the times of Locke, Freud and Rousseau, masturbation was considered prevalent among adults as integral issue about sex. In fact, the idea about masturbation was strongly opposed within the classical period as it would strongly contradict with the ultimate gain within religious principle. Even unti l today, religious individuals would most likely view at it as an act of immorality before God. Surprisingly, masturbation and even addiction with it in the 18th century was also associated with children (Egan & Hawkes, 2011). Today, masturbation is reportedly initiated by some children even at the age below 12 years old. Even then, this paved the way for taking into account child sexuality as an important area of rival among theorists like Locke, Freud, and Rousseau. It was of great interest to understand child sexuality in the first place as things in line with sexual matters would concern most about adults who are considered to be mature in this area. However, there are many things that need to be learned more about child sexuality as they are also humans who could be potentially sexually aroused at some specific point in time. This is the very point
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
In partakeity undermines democracy - Assignment Exampleality provokes a generalized offense that finds can where it can-immigrants, contradictory countries, American elites, government in all forms-and it rewards demagogues while discrediting reformers. I find this to be the key fourth dimension because it encapsulated the ultimate danger that dissimilitude can bring which is anger that begets hatred.The anger that begets hatred wrought by inequality as enunciated in those blames to target where it can is not only in peculiar in the US but also in other countries and culture. In fact, these effects of anger wrought inequality are universal. What will change is the target but it will always find a target to vent that anger and hatred. Notice in countries, societies and cultures where there is so much anger, hatred, animosity, murder and other forms of invasion they have one common denominator which is inequality. Inequality which breeds poverty as Parker explained in his othe r sentence creates a lopsided economy.This inequality that breeds anger and hatred undermines democracy which explains why Parker ended his article with the sentence Inequality undermines democracy. He used the operating word undermining to illustrate that inequality is incompatible with democracy. Democracy, which provides an equal opportunity for all cannot thrive in an environment where equal opportunity cannot be had due to inequality. It cannot also thrive in any country or society where there is so much anger due to inequality because such anger would also target democracy
Monday, April 22, 2019
Enterprise Systems Assessment - essay Example89). In order to understand the correlation between Argos as a company and how it functions as an enterprise system, we will wee to define some few terms and concepts. It is important to point stunned that SAP is constantly changing the SRM framework. More often than not it is introducing innovative concepts that are useful in arranging the components of SRM. Basically, there are three core concepts that we have to understand. They include, supply process, railway line scenarios within each key process, and fundamental technology constituents that are useful in enabling the business processes. It is worth noting that Argos have implemented each business scenario, with one or two SAP elements and there third troupe applications as they maybe required. An example is the provider Enablement scenario is through empowering it with a number of underlying technological components. These components include, Supplier Self Service (SUS), Biller Direct, Enterprise Portal, and inventory Collaboration Hub (ICH). Argos stores all over the UK have achieved in implementing this business scenario (SAP.COM, 2013, p.1). Production Process at Argos SAP has defined three key supply processes that are snarled in purchasing. These processes will jointly constitute the SAP SRM solutions. They include operational procurance, strategic sourcing, and supplier enablement. operable Procurement In this section, we will be looking at the various business scenarios that Argos has been successful in implementing. We start with the self service procural. When it comes to indirect procurement, it allows ones employees to create and manage their own obligation requests. This has been key in relieving its purchasing department the huge administrative burden while ensuring at the very(prenominal) clock time that the procurement processing are faster and responsive. The next scenario is the plan driven procurement also cognise as the direct pro curement. This has been great at automating and streamlining the ordering processes for regularly needed important materials (SAP.COM, 2013, p.1). It is a cognise fact that SAP SRM has been integrated with planning, designing and the order processing systems. This has made it possible for Argos to link its procurement process with their plan driven strategy. This ensures that they get the materials they need for their key business while at the same time processing and delivering their clients request. Direct procurement does integrate flawlessly with most back end systems wish well enterprise planning and production. This scenario has given Argos procurement division a chance to integrate operational procurement with their existing supply chain management solution. The last scenario is the service procurement or as it is usually known as the E-procurement. It has created many opportunities for Argos to save cots in their purchasing process. They have gone the extra gnarl of exte nding their cost saving measures like services given that this account for over 50 percent of their yearly purchasing volumes. This scenario has provided services that have led to a reduction in labor costs, consulting, and maintenance and installment management. Strategic Sourcing After the 2008 world economic crisis, it is estimated that sourcing makes up for 75 percent of one saving on
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Health History assessment interview - Essay ExampleThe next graduation in the health check assessment is to go through initial physical exams such as electrocardiogram, thyroidal function test, blood glucose, blood lipids profile, liver function tests, electrolytes, creatinine, urea and full blood count.The patient, KB is a 67 year old male, who is get hitched with with two kids. He lives in his retirement apartment. He is in the first place a Nigerian but has been residing in the United States for the last thirty years. Both his kids are married and both KB and his wife are retired. After the enactment of the Affordable Care Act, the healthcare formulation for senior citizens became a lot easier. Since KB is a resident of the United States and has been residing for more than thirty years, he is eligible to all the benefits provided by the Act. While previously, citizens like KB would put off their doctor appointments and treatments since they could not afford it, but now thing s pick up become quite different, and the American hospitals receive patients like KB and tend to them easily. Moreover, the presence of Medicare also ensures the health insurance for patients like KB who are elderly and have been facing very few health insurance options in the past.KB follows a cultural minimize of the Yoruba origination. Yoruba culture is one of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. In Yoruba medical care, their origins include get rid of symptoms, then identifying and working at the removal of the cause of illness, and then lastly maintenance of the clay to restore the holistic balance. Normal tradition of Yoruba medical care believes in general traditional medicine. These medical care traditions cover simple ailments such as psychiatry, dermatology, chest-care, midwifery, pediatric, orthopedics, circumcision and internal medicine. More complex diseases were treated by mystic medicine, while the third type of medicine, i.e. the esoteric medication is more abstract which makes use of incantation, magic, herbs, amulets
Saturday, April 20, 2019
The Raised In A Single Parent Home - Essay ExampleMy get died when I was six years old. That was the tragic start of my life, but my mother promised us that she would not permit us live a life of misery. My five siblings and I never knew that mom was so strong. We had eternally seen her working according to fathers orders and instructions. To us, the father was the all-in-all of our family. besides when he passed away, my mother took our fathers role. She promised us that she would do anything to gain us a comfortable and facilitated life. She was ready to accept the new challenges and responsibilities with a smiling face. All of us knew how grieved she was a fathers death. For some time, she was all lost and did not know what to do and where to start her life once again. But, we were happy and amazed to see her positive attitude, with which she recollected the burst pieces of her heart, and led the life of a strong woman. mum encouraged us to continue our education. She alway s cause us to put extra efforts in our academics, because she wanted to see us succeed in our lives. Mom started working in an office and started earning. At first, the earning was little, and we had to compromise over a lot of things as the family was big. But she kept her termination and kept on working. According to her, it was good to keep going slowly than to unload hope. Slow but steady wins the race, she would say. And she won. She got promotion after a year, and her salary doubled. Now, she was able to give us all the comforts of life. My siblings and I were able to continue our education, and we always brought good grades. The spark of gaiety in moms eyes, when she would see our report cards, was the biggest gift she could ever give us.Moms positive attitude transferred from her onto her children. I am proud to say that my siblings and I are full of determination and hope. We never lose hope when we see bad days.
Friday, April 19, 2019
Early Computers - Research Paper caseConventional desktop and laptops have extreme efficiency and storage. Apart from these they have blended in our vehicles, aircrafts, security systems, houses and industries to name a few. The reckoners we use today are a result of progress and innovation for approximately three quarters of a century. The early developments are discussed in detail 2. The First Computer Konrad Zuse was a German engineer who made Z1, the first programmed digital computer in 1936 (Copeland 5). The computer used electromechanical process to relay data. His original design was based on Vacuum tubes, but due to deprivation to funds he could not implement the technology in his design. Because of the electromechanical processing his computer is not considered by many to be the first fully electronic computer (Who Invented the Computer 2). However, Zuse continued break away on his computer and in 1941 introduced Z2 and Z3. The machines used telephone relays for sendi ng and receiving data. The break through with(predicate), however, came from John Atanasoff, who introduced ABC Computer in 1942. According to Null and Lobur, John Atanasoff is credited with the construction of first completely electronic computer (19). The computer used vacuum tubes for relaying data. ... 3. Early Developments 3.1 Vacuum Tubes Vacuum Tubes were the most critical development and the major gait towards the development of modern computers. These were used to deliver electric current in a vacuumed environment. The current was passed through the tubes and amplified. These were used for electrical signals by varying the amount of current. Vacuum Tubes were used in different devices and vary as per functionality. The tubes were replaced by transistors for use in computers. They were power efficient than the tubes and were responsible for shrinking the size. Furthermore, they significantly ameliorate reliability of these early systems (Rojas and Hashagen 85). 3.2 Storag e The Vacuum Tubes were used to relay data. They could not store data and were actually unreliable. The first real storage was by F.C. Williams (Lavington 19). It was simply a charged phosphor film that recorded the momentum from the tubes. The pulse was recorded as a binary star with the values differing with the strength of electric signal. The pattern of binary was recorded on the film and could be posterior used for regeneration. The equipment was known as Williams Cathode Ray Tube and was an electrostatic storage technology. 4. Operation Binary Number carcass was used for calculations. Programs were based on arithmetical and it was interpreted in binary code for the computer to process any calculation (Introduction to Computers 8). The Binary System has only two values that are 1 and 0. The computers interpret electric signals as 1 and shady signals as 0. The Vacuum Tubes were used to relay the signal and the storage films were used to record the information for later use . These components made the computers extremely big and difficult in
Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands - Assignment ExampleIt was authored by Mary Seacole, a Jamaican-born who became storied because of the work she was doing as a nurse during the Crimean (Seacole 15). The book has received universal acclaim as one(a) of the most comprehensible and fulfilling autobiographies of the 19th Century. This is attributed to the fact that the book revolves around a culturally sanctioned and self-directed feminine. Mrs. Seacole fashioned her own identity despite the fact that other throng assigned her other identities. This motif shall seek to address how she thought of herself in relation to the world, as well as how other people viewed her. It will also examine the ways in which Mary Seacole demarcated herself in terms of her imperial and theme identities. In the book, Mary Seacole has depicted herself as a self-willed woman who cannot be brought down payable to her race and economic status. In as much as she was a Creole, a half-cast b etween a Scottish father and a Jamaican mother, she was determined to go extra miles and help people. She has managed to construct her racial image to the readers carefully, as well as those whom she came in contact with during her journeys. She makes minimal reference to her skin air except when people around her point it out. She lives her life normally without making her skin color an wall plug while those living around her have an issue with her color. This is best demonstrated when she boarded a ship from navy Bay to Jamaica with several Americans on board (Seacole 90).
Thursday, April 18, 2019
FMRI - Coursework Example(BME, 2007).The trey family line of products offered by financial institutions is investment funds. These accumulate assets from investors and invest the assets in a diversified kitty-cat of assets. According to BME consulting report of 2007, investment funds can be classified as equity fund, stick funds, balanced funds, money market funds, real estate funds and other funds such as hedge funds. (BME, 2007).The other product is the life insurance. This product is among the largest net asset pools of consumers in the European market. UK is the largest market in Europe in relation to total life insurance provisions. (BME, 2007).Derivatives are the other category of investments issued by financial institutions. Derivatives are special non-standardized instruments tailored to meet the different investment st cropgies and needs of consumers. (BME, 2007) there are mainly two types of derivatives. They are warrants and certificates.Lastly, there is a private eq uity. Consumers consider this class of assets break away than public equity since the liquidity and transparency level is lower, and is a more established class of assets. (BME, 2007).From a report by the Bank of England, with an increase in relate rate, consumers will shift their investments to suit their happen attitudes. If the rise in interest rate reduces their level of earnings, investors will opt to sell their assets and invest in a different category that will maximize their earnings. For example, a rise in interest rate of bonds will lead to a fall in its price. With this, investors will tend to sell their bonds before adulthood and reinvest in securities with a lower prevailing interest rate.On the same report, savings have a direct relationship with changes in interest, whereas investments have an indirect or negative relationship. The increase in interest will make savings more attractive and reduce greatly on acceptations. This is because the rate of borrowing will increase and the income from
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
HMR - Essay ExampleHuman imaging charge looks after all these activities. HRM undersurface be considered as a process which involves four main duties. These accommodate acquisition, motivation, development and overall care of the compassionate imagination of an cheek. HRM can be considered as that branch of circumspection which is responsible for maintaining relationships among the employees and the organisation. The nature of HRM varies astray and depends on its role in the organisation. HRM is an inherent part of an organisation. From broader perspective, this role is followed by almost all members of an organisation rather than only the department for personnel management. The function of human resource management is pervasive. It has to be performed by managers at all levels and it is not limited to only one department or group. It permeates to each and all department of an organisation regardless of the category and function. Major activities of this department include manpower planning, placement, employment, remuneration and judgment and training of the employees. HRM is a continuous process which is present at every stage of the organisation. The fundamental verifiable of human resource management is contributing to the goals of the short letter and organisation. The department functions by ensuring efficient utilisation of the human resource and also increasing the potential of the people in the organisation so that they can in full utilise the resources of the organisation (Maloney). HRM functions can be categorised as managerial and operative functions. The managerial functions include planning, organising, controlling and directing. On the other hand, operative functions include activities such as procurement and development of function, providing compensation and benefits to them, record keeping and maintenance of good industrial relations. The structure of human resource management in UK is very strict. Most of the organisations in U K, have highly delegated HRM departments which looks after the organisation. As early as from the 1980s, the meaning has effectively delegated the responsibility of HRM to various agencies and department. This suit has been followed by a majority of public sector organisations in the UK. Big organisations and most of the private sectors are now focussing on maintaining their own HRM department. Human resource management is most evident in the health care sector in UK while local authorities and smaller groups do not have any proper human resource management format. The basic difference between human resource and human resource management is that human resource consists of a group of individuals who constitute the workforce of a business, organisation or an economy they are conspicuous assets of an organisation. On the other hand, human resource management includes management of these assets for the best utilisation of the resources of a business or organisation. Principles of Equ al Opportunities Equal opportunity in employment refers to contact rights in the field of jobs, function and benefits to all individuals, employees and perspective employees in an organisation (Equal Opportunity). Equal employment opportunity is determined to provide equal and fair outcomes in almost all employment areas which include functions such as selection, recruitment, information access, management
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
A f atomic number 18well to arms EssayErnest Hemmingways A Farewell to gird is an examination of war, loyalty, desertion, love and detriment. His sweet tells the story of an American, Fredric henry, serving in the Italian army during World war I. Using a first person narrative we witness the horrors of war, the beauty of love, and the pain of loss. While the novel is fiction there are m whatever similarities to Hemmingways heart, which he uses as inspiration in his work. These experiences work substance to his tale of love in a beat of war. The story is broken into five books, separately covering a different aspect of narrative structure.The first book is an excellent example twist the exposition of a story, beginning with Lieutenant enthalpy describing the village where his unit is stationed. Through Henrys eyes Hemmingway describes the beauty of the village and the neighboring country berth. He also alludes to the impending conflict that is short to scourge the lan d, detailing the men and equipment that come through the streets. Book one also introduces love skirmish of the two central characters of the story Fredric Henry, an American serving as a Lieutenant with the Italian Army and Catherine Barkley, an slope working in the local hospital.Their relationship develops quickly further is just as quickly tested when Henry is severely injured in battle. Book Two continues to make up on the love affair between Henry and Catherine. After Henry is moved away from the front to an American hospital, where he is soon reunited Catherine and they resume their affair. Henry is faced with the not only major surgery and a long recovery, however also having to hide his relationship with Catherine. Elements of both Henry and Catherines personalities are fleshed out in great detail.Henry is a fairly aloof man. He does not care much for the war and he is not interested in the merits or the glory of war however he is a upright and dedicated soldier. Ca therine is very submissive toward Henry. She often gives control of the relationship to Henry, becoming almost co-dependent. As their time together increases Henry finds himself growing more and more dedicated to his relationship to Catherine. As the fall arrives Henry is faced with two new major complications he must return to the battle front and Catherine is instanter pregnant. Henry being a man of honor promises his love to Catherine and that we will not desert her.Henry moves onto the front where things will go from bad to worse. Henry is moved keystone to the front and he begins to watch out how the war has varyd not only the countryside but those around him as well. Because Henry is not Italian he does not feel the same sense of loyalty those around him feel and he begins to question his commerce to the war efforts. His summer with Catherine has given Henry a new outlook on life and a different cause to commit to. This adds to the rising conflict of the story as now Henr y is back in harms way and will soon see thing that will change his perception of war and his life and force him to make a choice that will change his life. The important crisis of the story is in Book Three.Not long after returning to the fight the Italian defenses are broken and the army is ordered to retreat. Henry must take his ambulances and drivers across the Italian country side to the rally point. As they trek through the ravaged landscape Henry begins to see the war as being hopeless and his thoughts move toward being with Catherine once again. During the retreat Henry is forced to kill some other soldier for not obey an order. He also sees as one of his men is killed by dandy Italian soldiers. These two events cause Henry to detach completely from his duties as an ships officer.The story reaches the climax as Henry is being separated from his men and about to be executed. No weeklong feeling any commitment to the cause and knowing that he will be shot simply for being an officer Henry decides to flee and start his new life with Catherine. After escaping execution and reuniting with Catherine, Henry realizes that he longer has any associations to the war in Italy and is dedicated only to Catherine. The couple makes their way into Switzerland to begin a life and await the birth of their child.It is in this time that the story takes a moment for pause, almost as a build up for one final crisis. It is nearly 300 AM and Catherine has started going into labor, and this is where the final crisis comes in to play. As Catherine goes through hours of intense labor, Henry can only stand by and watch. He prays to paragon for her safety. He prays for the safety of the one thing he holds dear. He asks for the protection of the center of his universe, Catherine.The baby is delivered quench born and Catherine dies shortly after. Henry says his final good byes to Catherine but they experience him no peace. He sees no purpose in their deaths, simply an event h e was powerless to stop. He is left with nothing but a walk back to the hotel in the rain, bringing the story to its conclusion. Hemmingways tale of war, love and loss carefully uses each book of his story to bring all the narrative elements into play. The first two books build the exposition and set up the rising action. He uses book three to set the final crisis and bring about the climax. Book Four brings the action down to set up for the tragic conclusion in Book Five.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Positive make of Media on Our Society EssayToday i am going to aw ar you slightly the verificatory effects of media on our society. Media has comed as a boon to mankind. It has provided us with an exposure to the world outside our intimate homes. It has resulted in an exchange of views on a variety of subjects of a wide variety of people from wholly around the world, thereby leading to a global exchange of education and knowledge. Mass media has given for each one of us a platform to voice our opinions on all sorts of social and political issues and share information with one another. It has brought out easy ways of communication and provided us with easily accessible means to puree out to people in various parts of the world. Thanks to technological development, we have been able to maintain a platform that enables us to present ourselves to the rest of the world.The negative influences of media that are a result of an overexposure to it, are most often talked about. It is true to a certain extent that media has affected the society in a negative manner. But, undoubtedly, media has proved being a bliss. The media like television, radio and the Internet ontogenesis an overall cognizance of the masses. They enhance the general knowledge by providing us with information from all over the world. News dole out through different media helps us know about the day-to-day events in the world. News, tele-films and documentaries revolving around social issues increase a social awareness in children and develop their concern towards society.Newspapers, apart from updating us with the up-to-the-minute news and new information, also contribute to the enhancement of our vocabulary. Newspapers are the best beginners in developing reading habits in children. Through the print media, they provide the general public with a platform to give updates about their parts of the city, exchange their views over different issues that the society faces and share their thoughts on a larger scale. Media serve as the best means for a cannonball alongy spread of news about important incidents or events taking place. What has happened in the remotest corner of the world can reach us within minutes, thanks to media.The speed that technology has achieved is helpful in times of crisis when media is to be used for reporting news needing immediate attention. query has revealed that media is responsible for influencing a major part of our daily life. Media contribute to a transformation in the pagan and social values of the masses. Media can bring about a change in the attitudes andbeliefs of the common man. The glib-tongued nature of the content presented over media influences the thoughts and behavior of the general public. Media has a direct impact over the life-style of society.
Sunday, April 14, 2019
Environmental issues EssayIt was non yet realized by the universe the seriousness of the environmental problems we face if not for the issue on global warming. Dozens of organizations, many of them with global memberships, ar promptly working on everything from saving wildlife to developing new sources of energy. But taint, energy function and economic growth be independent problems. Effective platforms for dealing with one of them often aggravate the others. For example, devices that reasonable automobile exhaust and reduce agate line pollution in like manner decreases fuel economy, thitherby using up our limited reserves more(prenominal) rapidly. Similarly, banning the burning of household trash reduces appearance pollution scarcely increases environmental pollution, as knock down, animals and scenery atomic number 18 sacrificed for strip mines and oil puff ups, and the wastes produced by the fuel atomic number 18 dumped into the environment. On the other h and, ignoring the need for more energy retards the economy, thereby increasing unemployment and possibly reducing feed production. constitution is fighting back against the abuses we have inflicted upon it Due to human carelessness that damaged the environment, many communities are now suffering from environmental crises. The air that you breathe contains gases such(prenominal) as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide in plastered amounts. But many population live in areas where the air contains pollutants that are harmful to their health. atmosphere pollution is a common problem in congested and urban areas (The Washington Times 2006, p.26). Food, air and soundbox of water needed for lifes processes which the environment provides unfortunately contain harmful substances called pollutants. The presence of air, water and earth in the environment is of waste physicals or pollutants which the environment arseholenot handle, degrade, disperse or diffuse so that it becomes snott y and unhealthy is called pollution (Colla 2002, p.125). There are four general types of pollution, namely1. Air contamination It is an inapplicable change in the physical and chemical characteristics of air. Industrial plants, motor vehicles, indiscriminate throwing and burning of refuse over make the air taintd. Cigarette smoking contri providedes to air pollution, most especially in enclosed places. cruddy smell from waste and methane gas emitted through the combustion of refuse contri exceptes to the problem of air pollution (Kemp1994, p.23). extended exposure to air pollution whitethorn cause/aggravate respiratory and other diseases as well as irritation of the eyes, nose and throat.2. Water Pollution this results when water contains more harmful substances such as harmful bacteria and poisonous chemicals, than it potful abidecelly get rid of. The dumping of domestic and industrial wastes into the rivers, canals, and other water bodies causes pollutants to be introduce d into watership canal. Frequent flooding which carry topsoil and sewage into the water supplies pollute the water, too. Sugar mills, di quieters and mining firms without proper waste disposal systems are among the principal polluters of the nations waterways. trounce and water detergents produce enormous persistent layers of suds on the surface of receding waters.Substances such as harmful bacteria and poisonous chemicals are likely to cause gastro-intestinal diseases, cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, infectious hepatitis, food tipsiness and even death.Mercury in sea water is absorbed by tiny plants that provide food for small fish, which is eaten by a larger fish. When they are eaten by men, mercury is deposited in the kidneys and brain which may cause death when accumulated (Kemp 1994, p.23).3. Land Pollution This takes place when harmful substances are introduced into the soil devising it unable to sustain plant life. Dumping areas are breeding places of disease carriers s uch as flies, rodents, mosquitoes and cockroaches.Uses of unreasonable amounts of fertilizer, pesticides and other toxic chemicals can destroy the ability of the soil to self-generate. They deplete the nutrients, harden the texture, and increase toxicity, do the soil less productive.Other causes of land pollution are atomic fallouts and mine tailings which poison plain lands. Toxic residues from the accumulation of chemicals in the land can cause cancer and other diseases (Kemp 1994, p.24).4. Noise Pollution (Persistent noise) This refers to the presence of too loud, too sudden or very unpleasant sound that becomes an assault to the body causing mental or physical harm. The roaring of motor vehicles, grating sound of jackhammer, squeaking of tires, skreak brakes, blaring television sets, radios and stereos and even loud shouting are nighwhat types of dangerous noises when one is infinitely exposed to them. Noise pollution affects not only the ears but also directly or indire ctly impairs the mind and the whole body. Directly, it can cause deafness indirectly, it may lead to change magnitude heart produce and high blood pressure that eventually cause cardiovascular disease (Kemp 1994, p.24).Most pollution is ca utilize by man, pollutants will increase as population grows, and hence, minimizing the production of pollutants and managing its proper disposal essential be the intent of every human being.But the air pollution essential be given extra perplexity by the government, society and each individual to protect people from this environmental danger, not only for ourselves but for future generations.Air Pollution, Environmental HazardThere are five basic pollutants of air are carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, hydrocarbons (organic compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon) and small particles that float in the air (Jordan 2005, p.12-20).Sources of Air Pollution1. Automobile exhaustsThe poisonous carbon monoxide in the air comes from automobiles. Nitrog en oxide and hydrocarbons are also produced as by-products of engine combustion. The more vehicles there are on the road, the greater is the possibility of pollution. Unleaded gasoline and some anti-pollution automobile parts cut down the amount of pollutants in the air. But transportation vehicles are still a major cause of air pollution.2. IndustryIndustries are responsible for the second largest amount of pollution in the air, next only to vehicles. Fuels that are utilise in some industries may give aside large amounts of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide and harmful particles of dust and ash. Sulfur oxide is made when fuels containing sulfur like burn are burned. Certain industrial processes may give off more of one pollutant than another. This depends on the mixed bag of fuel used and the product that is being made.3. IndividualsPeople pollute the air in many ways. severally time a person smokes a cigar/cigarette, the air is being contaminated when he burns trash, air pollution is increased. More pollution is added when he uses wood for cooking or to keep warm during the unheated months or cool during the hot months.Effects of Air Pollution1. Respiratory disordersIf you have breathed polluted air, the eyes may water, the nose may run and a cough may develop. Serious illnesses are likely to happen to people hanker exposed to polluted air. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer are common in air polluted areas. Cigarette smoking is closely related to the development of long cancer. Heart diseases, especially heart attacks occur more in places where there is a high train of carbon monoxide in the air.1. AccidentsVehicle accidents happen more often in places where air is polluted. These accidents may be caused by poor visibility in the polluted air. Or they may be caused by increased exposure to carbon monoxide. People with watery eyes, headaches and breathing problems often find it hard to drive in air polluted areas.2. High economic costThe govern ment may spend billions of pesos per year to check into air pollution. However, little has been done by the government to control air pollution due to the try economy and the low economic growth. The United States spends around 4o billion dollars a year to control air pollution. The cost of air pollution is about 200 dollars per year for each person.Air pollution can also add to the rusting and corrosion of vehicles and machinery. Even farm crops may be harmed or boney in growth by air pollution.There is a way out of this trap. In a word, it is sacrifice. The fact that there is no way both to clean up the environment and conserve natural resources without changing the life-style of people in the industrialized nations. The challenge is that of motivating people to make the prerequisite changes now, before a foundingwide disaster forces much more difficult adjustments upon us.Preventing of Air PollutionEveryone needs to care more about the problem of air pollution. Car exhausts and air conditioning systems can be checked at regular times and kept in good working condition. Air conditioners, if not working properly, may give off harmful hydrocarbons. Vehicles should not be allowed to idle for more than a few minutes because idling lets carbon monoxide escape in the sir. Use of universal transportation would also lower the number of vehicles on the road and in return would also lower air pollution. stringent laws on transportation and industry must be enforced.Instead of burning trash, it should be allowed to decompose in pits. The decomposed materials can be utilized as fertilizer for plants and at the same time minimizes smoke in the air. Stricter laws on cigarette smoking should also be enforced. The end result of this is lesser lung and heart ailments and unspotted atmosphere (Cline 1992, p.35-37).Political ActionThe real problem comes from the wealth the power of the opponents of environmental protection. On the local level, environmentalist face r ich land developers who can make large campaign contributions to the politicians who decide what land may or may not be developed. At higher levels of government, environmentalists face even more powerful foes multinational corporations that stand to make big profits from despoiling the environment. Included here are some of the most powerful corporations in the world, such as petroleum and mineral companies that want to sink well and mines in fragile wilderness areas, the manufacturers that spew pollutants into the air and water, and the firms that sell products such as polluting automobiles and unsafe pesticides. much(prenominal) corporations have spent hundreds of million dollars to persuade the government not to outlaw their destructive activities (Diehl, p.20-21). The environmentalists and the concerned public simply do not have that kind of money.If we are to preserve the natural environment for ourselves and the generations to come, dickens things must be done. First, a str onger educational campaign must be launched to make more people aware of environmental problems. Second, more ordinary citizens must join together and become involved in the political action necessary to strengthen anti-pollution laws, increase the enforcement effort, and protect our natural resources.Conserving ResourcesThere is no interrogation that our existing resources can be used far more efficiently. It is possible for a large-scale, multiple-stage recycling program to be introduced in imitation of natural ecosystems. To take a simple example, garbage could be used as fuel to run the mills to make recycled paper, the wastes from which could be burned as fuel. Similarly, it is possible that club water districts will some day become closed systems, meaning that the water would be used again and again, never being discharged into an ocean or river. Some factories already have such closed systems (Sarewitz 2000, p.55). It is possible to envision larger closed systems designed s o that no industrial material would ever be discarded as either waste or pollution.Energy conservation can also stretch our natural resources. Insulating homes, impulsive smaller cars at slower speeds, riding trains and buses instead of driving cars, recycling the heat used in factories, and restricting the manufacture of energy-wasting gadgets are obvious ways of eliminating waste. The quick task is not to develop technologies that are more energy sufficient the challenge is to find ways or persuading people to use the conservation measures that are already available.Better TechnologyA suppuration number of scientists and concerned citizens are coming to see solar system as the best fare to the worlds energy problems. Solar power units use the endless supply of energy from the sun, are nonpolluting, and pose no threat of radiation or explosion. Other promising approaches use specially active ponds of water to trap solar energy or mirrors to concentrate it on a single location, where it can be used to generate electrical power (Tennesen 2004, p.85).Limiting GrowthTechnological solutions are attractive, but it is doubtful that they alone can resolve the environmental crisis. It is often argued that industrial growth is necessary to lay down new jobs for a growing population. The argument that economic growth is necessary to eliminate poverty and make water a more egalitarian society is also misleading. Despite decades of rapid economic growth, the industrialized nations stop to show enormous inequalities of wealth and power (1991, p.12).ConclusionThe environmental crisis does not mean everyone should return to hunting and gathering the worlds current population is too large to even consider such an idea. Keeping a clean environment is the responsibility of the government, society and each individual. Today, air pollution must be given extra attention to protect people from this environmental danger. All of us must have aknowledge of this environmental menace. The young generations today, like us, crave for the total preservation of our natural resources, earnestly beggary to put an end to wastage and preserve the natural wealth intended by our Mother creation for the future.Yes, there is still gleaming hope to save our Mother Earth from total destruction. There is still a chance to regain the lost paradise we unscrupulously abused. We must do our part to make this world a safer place to live in, not just for ourselves and our neighbors but our future generations. The will to dynamic implementation to this urgent call lies in your strong and sustainable support, giving once more Mother Earth a chance to care for our lives now and in the future generations.
Saturday, April 13, 2019
The tastiest carrot cake EssayBirthdays have been special over the years, what makes it special is not balloons or parties, but the desert Every birthday that I can remember I have had a carrot flourless cake, paradigm layer with rich chocolate icing on the top. Its home made by my mom, she is the the only someone that can cook a cake like that, Ive never tried something so mature and tasty like this one. Since I was young, chocolate has been my favorite thing to eat, no matter what time of the day, Ill eat it for breakfast, lunch, or dinner, and cannot resist it when I see it. Just the sight of a dark, scrumptious, chocolate makes my sassing water like a little kid at the zoo eyeing some cotton candy. I inherited my sweet tooth from my moms dad, grandpa Valdemar he would cover loads of healthy nutrient such as fruit and cereal with loads of sugar.The warm inside of the carrot cake when it early comes out of the oven makes my taste buds jump with joy. It looks soft as the sky clouds on sunny days and the frappe is as smooth as malaises, rich with 2 pound of chocolate on the top of it. During the telling of the birthday song, I can see the wax from the candles dripping off and just cant wait to blow them out so I can jump into the cake and relish the taste. This kind of cake is famous as carnival in Brazil and I cant even off find this amazing food in a city like New York, so involved and with a lot of cultures. I hope that one day Americans will try at least one time. Im sure that who tried once will never stay without a piece two times a month in a normal afternoon.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
Ban On Assault Weapons High Capacity Magazines EssayWhat is a utmost capacity magazine exactly? It is any magazine for a semi-automatic weapon that can hold much than 10 bullets. Pennsylvania voters want stricter laws on guns, including background checks on all purchases and bans on brush up weapons and spirited school-capacity magazines.Democrats controlled two the Ho subprogram and Senate, and the nations execration rate was a major concern. The assault weapons ban was part of an extensive crime bill that included money to hire additional police, build new prisons and fund crime measure programs. By 3 to 2 margins, people favor a nationwide ban on assault weapons (60 percent to 37 percent) and a ban on the sale of ammunition magazines that hold more than 10 bullets (59 to 39 percent). But when the first assault weapons ban was approved outlawing 19 specific weapons it was a very(prenominal) different time. Personally, Im for guns. I do NOT come back they should ban a ssault weapons and high capacity magazines. Thats not fair to the true gun lovers out there.Plus all of the hunters that whitethorn need a high capacity magazine or an assault rifle. I personally guess that this law wont pass everywhere, especially in Alaska. People need to learn how to use a gun before they lay their hands on one. Thats the only issue. I as well think you need to register your gun in your name as soon as you name it. I personally think if someone has a pestiferous record or a timeline of bad deeds then they shouldnt own a gun. Simple as that. Banning assault weapons and high capacity magazines can have its ups using it for hunting or just shooting but it besides has its downs killing people, or hurting someone, but Im all for guns. So I think this law doesnt need to be made. One needs to register it and make sure you hold outt have a bad record, and know how to use a gun. Thats the law I think they should make.
Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Can Technology Replace T severallyers examineTV, computers have fully integrated into urban life in many spheres like education, entertainment, and commerce, and therefore, some mountain consider that the technology such as multimedia teaching would replace teachers in class. I would reckon this does not sound very convincing beca utilise the superiority of the teachers are obvious. The first and most apparent favor that face-to-face conversation is a vital ability for the environment of the social working is clear.Teachers give students educational activity to have a good grasp to work in the team or respect each other. It is possible for one to have a video communication with teacher to achieve that, however, the meaning of often of what we say depends on our body language and tone of voice which can not be communicate by the computers. The interaction between teachers arid students is the core of teaching process. Additionally, it is generally thought that multimedia ever so connects with Internet which is a double-edged sword.The Internet with innumerable news sources about curriculum let us make the paradox of choice. For instance, we downland a mass of materials for TOEFL tests but do not know which one to start. Teachers forge significant roles to guide our study, and they can tell us where we begin with, what we should do, and which reference we should choose, hence their proposal forever and a day make a huge difference especially in a brand new discipline. As a facilitator ,teacher can make us learn efficiency.Whats more, students,with low self-control, also easier to indulge in spoilt or rather faulty information and act on it. Teachers also play significant roles in supervising students. In conclusion, the computer has been widely used in class,it cannot replace the role of teachers who impersonated an essential character reference of modern education. Nevertheless,multimedia teaching facilitates our education like PPT teaching whic h can avoid the chalk dust. Teachers can use this trait to mend and consummate our education.
Monday, April 8, 2019
Standard Deviation in the line of products World EssayAbstract On Standard Deviations in Job PerformanceThe purpose of this dissect was to compare the expected payoffs from personnel programs based on measure disagreement of job performances in dollars, the ball-shaped love model, and the CREPID procedure. The study was done for route gross salesmen of a large soft drink bottling company. The Global Estimation model and the CREPID procedure were behaviorally based, where the standard dispute of job performance was based on embody news report data. The research study was based on whether selecting certain methods of behaviors for route salesmen would influence the expected monetary military issue of the selected behavior. The results could then be listed by the dollar payoff of the selected behavior. The hypothesis of the study was that using the standard aberration model would produce results that would measure cost accounting behavioral outcomes. There were three dif ferent methods utilize to gather information within the study.The Global Estimation model included using a questionnaire-based watch that would rate the value of a route salesmans job performance. The CREPID procedure had two raters evaluating the salesmans performance. The cost accounting method used sales records and performance results records to evaluate based on previous sales and delivery. The results of the study showed that the older, more experienced route salesmen had more influence on results than using any standard deviation cost accounting estimates of possible results. The Global Estimation method produced results similar to the standard deviation model showing that most of the dollar improvements were more directly related to the route salesmen and not the results of ever-changing methodology.The CREPID method was found to be too subjective to be effective in this study. In strive to produce results that would establish job performance as a cost object, it failed t o consider the personnel factor. The merciful resource of influence will skew any study because an objective measure of standard deviation of accounting dollars in job performance has not been established.
Sunday, April 7, 2019
A Definition of the Word Trust try onWhen you think of a very special quality everyone should confound, depose is the first thing that comes to my mind. Being able to dedicate mortal is very important. We have to authority hatful in our sustains every single day. Trust helps us to have relationships and friendships. Trust is defined as accept in someone in the dictionary. Although this seems simple, it is not that easy to understand and comprehend. Trust has a dense marrow as we continue to grow and change in life. We go by means of many things that make us change as we live, grow, and experience different challenges. Trust is believing in someone with your whole purport and believing that he or she will take cargon of it or appreciate it. There argon so many roles of hope. Three type of trust are trust in a family member, trusting in someone special, and trusting in friends. With our family members, we have deep trust. They have been through everything with us an d well-nigh of deep darkening secrets.They have been there for us during the good times and the bad. They watched us go through elementary, middle and high school. Your family has been there to watch you mature and become the person you are today. We have deep trust with them because they took care of us when we were sick or needed someone to cry on. Since we utter them everything, we are the most attached to them. They deal when we are acting strange or weird and can herald when we are sad or ecstatic. They share all kinds of memories with us and understand what and where we have been. We let family know almost everything about us. We go back to them when we have nowhere else to go. We trust them with our lives because we know no effect what, that they will always love and care for us. Another kind of trust is trust in someone special or someone that we think is our true love.See moreFirst Poem for You EssayWe tell them everything about us because we believe that they really care. We tell him or her things that we keep to ourselves because we believe that he or she has committed to us. It takes a lot of time to have this kind of trust in a relationship. It takes a lot of time to confide our secrets and personal issues in someone else. When you have such a deep trust with him or her, there should be no secrets. There are no secrets when you unfeignedly love each other. This kind of trust is just part of the commitment to each other. In this commitment, you trust each other to be faithful, respectful and to always be there for each other. Another type of trust is the trust between friends.We let our friends know about some of our secrets. We keep the deep dark ones outdoor(a) from them. We also try to cloak our past and do not trust them right away because we have had friends in the past betray and hurt us numerous times. We do not trust them right away because we do not know about their life or their past. We do not know where they come from or what t hey believe makes a good friend. So we as humans hide our feelings and do not trust them. It is only when we spend a lot of time and slowly opened up to each other that we become closer and can eventually trust them. Trust cannot be given. It has to be earned. It is not as simple as believing.Trust is earned. When you earn trust, you realize that you can tell him or her anything and they will still be there for you. Trust is not easy to earn though. You have to really believe in the other person and know that they will not let you down. Therefore, trust is very important to humans everywhere. Trust is a huge factor of unity and without it people cannot live in unity. Only you can fully understand trust in your own way. Trust is having a special place in their heart and you having special place for them. Finally, trust is the base for all relationships and friendships. Without trust, we cannot hear the true meaning of life. Trust is a must for everything in life.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Valuing Literacy EssayIn speaking ab forth the value of literacy in the classroom, it is congenital to reflect upon our own personal histories in the classroom setting. Being that my favorite content has been primarily math, it was practically difficult for me to be interested in literacy. Language, both spoken and written, did not appeal to me in the same(p) way that math and numbers did. I always found math to be very logical, simple(a) and straight forward, with understandable rules, while nomenclature seemed subjective, with rules that alter and change over time. However, even though manner of speaking was not my favorite subject, it is vital to understand the ways in which people are aided by having a strong command of language. Development The development of the child as one passes through the direct system is a constantly shifting and evolving process. I remember listening to bedtime stories as a five-year-old child and makeing to read, then learning how to spell a nd write in elementary school and pinch the parts of speech.As I progressed into secondary school, I was expected to organize and refine my write, developing concepts in depth. It is a natural process for children to start out slow with literacy skills. However, it is important for children to be supported in language acquisition as they grow older, promoting the comprehension of multifaceted ideas (Plaut, 2008). Content There were various methods sedulous by my parents and teachers to help me to fully understand the content of literacy.When reading with my parents, we took turns reading and pronouncing words. They encouraged me to read to them, further as they were happy to read to me. In elementary school, I received further instruction in grammar and semantics, learning how words worked within sentences, how words were spelled, how to gain meaning from the concepts macrocosm communicated. In secondary school, I was encouraged to write essays, to fine tune my organizational s kills, and to communicate ideas in a comprehensive and dapper fashion. ExperiencesIn reflecting on how some of my experiences with literacy were helpful or harmful, it is important to note that not all children learn about language in positive ways. Sometimes, the very people who are supposed to be our teachers rehearse language to deflate the self esteem of children. I remember being reprimanded for reading something incorrectly, and the result was that I was less confident the next time. On the other hand, I remember instances of teachers praising my writing and pointing out what worked. I believe that praising the good is often more productive than shaming the mistakes.Social Impact The kindly impact of literacy is an important element of language acquisition. When family members, teachers, and friends are not highly educated in literacy or do not value language skills, then the result is a social environment which is not adequately supportive (McKenna Robinson, 2009). Social interactions have a way of making or breaking a person, and it is important to recognize the gulf between the expectations of the greater academic society and the reality of ones social atmosphere.Practice In bringing my own literacy skills to a higher level and moving from being a student to being a teacher, it is highly important for me to be able to be an nice model of literacy to the students I teach. Although I am focused on being a math teacher, the explanation and understanding of any subject has to be successfully communicated through language (Zwiers, 2007). It is of utmost importance to me and my approaching students that I be able to support them in polishing their literacy skills. In order to do this, I must focus on my own level of excellence.ReferencesMcKenna, M. Robinson, R. (2009). Teaching through text reading and writing in the content areas. Allyn and Bacon. Plaut, S. (2008). The Right to Literacy in Secondary Schools Creating a Culture of Thinking. Teachers College Press. Zwiers, J. (2007). Building academic language essential practices for content classrooms. John Wiley and Sons.
Realism and the Future of solid ground Politics EssayFirst and foremost it is important to remember that relegate interest or state preference operates in an anarchic environment. The world(prenominal) strategy is inherently unstable and is aptly characterized by far-flung anarchy. Due to the absence of a suprastate or overarching Leviathan authority, states atomic number 18 placed in inevitable and perpetual competition, set forth as the protection dilemma. This has been evidenced by the state of European affairs since 1789. Because of the anarchic nature of supranational affairs, states atomic number 18 perpetually concerned with their survival. For realists, the outside(a) system is a dog-eat-dog world and ensuring survival is paramount for all and all states. According to Hans Morgenthau, pioneering German semipolitical scientist and an early proponent of realist thought, due to the inherent instability of the external system, the fundamental national interest of all states is to protect its physical, political, and cultural identity against encroachments by separate nations (Morgenthau, 1952). Specifically, threats to states are determined by their relative power vis-a-vis one others in the international system.The structure of the system the dispersion of power and capabilities state wide is important because threats or challenges facing a state which affront the national interest should be calcu advancedd according to the situation in which the state finds itself (Waltz, 1979). Thus, power and security requirements are paramount in attempting to define state interest and what motivates states to act. Furthermore, Power and wealth supply the elbow room for states to survive, to meet their security requirements, and thus to continue to compete in a system in which other states are necessarily either actual or potential threats.State officials ad policy analysts are therefore advised realistically to asses the distribution of power th ey should overcome their aversion to seeing problems of international political relation as they are in order to objectively asses the national interest in light of the distribution of power. Every state, that is, must pursue its national interest defined in terms of power (Morgenthau 1952) because this is the surest driveway to security and survival (Weldes, 1999).If we apply the realist existence of states power and apply it to the future of the international world, action over resources and warfare will be a defining feature of the international system. Europe has been plagued by conflict since the late 18th century and despite global interdependence and the existence of multilateral organizations in the contour of the UN and the European Union, there is little evidence to suggest that armed conflict is not the future of international affairs.Nationalism, a concept created in Europe, has been responsible for much armed conflict over the past tierce centuries. Nationalism in International Affairs Nationalism is an important force in international relations and has been so for centuries. As a basic precept of the international order, concepts of state sovereignty are inwrought to our understanding of the world system. Accordingly, the international system is predicated upon the existence of nation-states and nationalism is a belief or moxie of identity within the nation.The Treaty of Westphalia established the principle of state sovereignty, another fundamental principle of the international order which established the nation-state as an autonomous political entity. Similar to tribalism or a sense of social kinship, nationalism as a potent political force began in Europe in the late eightieth century and was connected with a decline in overall religiosity, the development of industrialization, Enlightenment thoughts and a concerted effort by political elites to build states.By inculcating a sense of nationalist innervation in the citizens of their re spective countries, elites have been able to manipulate nationalism for political purposes. Mass mobilization towards a variety of specific causes through an appeal to nationalist sentiment has been used as a political tool for centuries. Although not exclusively a negative force, nationalism remains an important ordering principle of the international system and a force to be reckoned with (Waltz 2000). Concluding RemarksKeeping in mind our realist conception of state interest, conflict will be an inevitable feature of the international system in the conterminous 50 years. Europe has descended into bloodshed and armed conflict and has been the feature of the European continent for centuries. When global war broke out in 1914 dreams of world peace and prosperity were shattered. Accordingly, the First foundation warfare was arguably one of the most traumatic episodes in the history of international affairs. Geopolitically speaking, the First World War (also draw as WWI in this ess ay) was unprecedented in both scale and sheer loss of human life.never before had the world witnessed such carnage and violence perpetuated through the use of modern technology. The First World War touched much of the world the implications of this conflict reverberated across the globe. In addition to WWI, Europeans states fought dozens of wars and were dwelling house to countless revolutions aimed at changing the political order. From the French Revolution to the Spanish Civil War and the War to End All Wars, World War II, the history of Europe since 1789 has been wrought with conflict with nationalism contend an important role in the outbreak of violence.
Friday, April 5, 2019
Cortico steroids and Mental DisorderAbstr toyCorticosteroid medication is an indispensable treatment in almost all medical specialties. Psychiatric attitude make of adrenal cortical steroids whitethorn be twain common and severe and include psychosis, mania, embossment, delirium and dependence. Only a small evidence tail exists about susceptibility to and epidemiology of these conditions. Corticosteroid bring on psychiatric deflect typically has an acute onset and is demigod related. Manic symptoms predominate acutely withal long edge apply may be associated with depression. steroid dependence and withdrawal syndromes get under wizard(a)s skin been documented. shell reports suggest that a combination of predilection stabilizers and antipsychotics may be reusable in management severe acute effects. This article depart give psychiatrists working in a general hospital a guide to the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of adrenal cortical steroid indu ced psychiatric throw out of kilter.IntroductionCorticosteroids were first introduced into medical practice in the late 1940s, since when they have been used by almost all medical specialists as effective treatment for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Over 5 million prescriptions ar written for corticosteroids in the UK each year, at a cost of over century million. (NHS Health attending Statistics 2005) About 1% of the general population and as many as 7% of hospitalized patients are receiving oral corticosteroid therapy at any given point in time. (NHS Health Care Statistics 2005) Whilst being renowned for important therapeutic actions they sewer have many adverse effects which must be considered in long term treatment. Physical effects much(prenominal) as osteoporosis, central obesity and immunosuppression are frequent in patients receiving corticosteroids. Psychiatric effects include alterations in mood, delirium, dementia and psychosis. As corticosteroids have a cr itical place in the management of degenerative indisposition, psychiatrists should be equipped with the knowledge to mark and manage corticosteroid induced genial indisposition. This article describes the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of these conditions.Indications and Pharmacology in that location are several forms of corticosteroid medication licensed in the UK, including betamethasone, cortisone acetate, deflazacort, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone (prednisolone) and triamcinolone. Each of these drugs has varying degrees of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid activity. alone of the above preparations exist in oral or intramuscular form. Inhaled steroid preparations are as well as will not be discussed as there is little evidence that they can induce mental disorder.The master(prenominal) indications for these medications areSuppression of inflammatory and allergic bowel diseasechronic or treatment resistive Asthma and COPDImmunosuppression in Ac ute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Hodgkins and non-Hodgkins disease, and Hormone sensitive breast cancerPalliation of symptomatic end-stage malignant diseaseOrgan transplant rejectionAuto-immune (Rheumatic) disease such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosis and Wegners Granulomatosis.Corticosteroids are rapidly heedless across the Gastro Intestinalmembrane fol blueing oral administration. Peak effects can be discovered afterwards 2 hours. The circulating drugs bind extensively to the plasma proteins Corticosteroid Binding Globulin (CBG), albumin and transcortin, with all the unbound portion of a social disease busy. Systemic prednisolone is quickly circularized into the kidneys, intestines, skin, liver and muscle. Corticosteroids also distri plainlye into the breast milk and cross the placenta. Corticosteroids are predominantly metabolized by the liver to active metabolites then tho metabolized to inactive compounds. These inactive metabolites, as well as a small portion of unchanged dr ug, brook urinary excretion. The plasma elimination half-life is 1 hour whereas the biological half-life of prednisone is 18-36 hours.Corticosteroids act as glucocorticoid receptor agonists. On binding, the corticoreceptor-ligand complex translocates itself into the cell nucleus, where it binds to Glucocorticoid Response Elements (GRE) in the promoter region of objective genes.Insert Figure 1 about hereThe DNA bound receptor then interacts with canonical transcription factors, altering gene expression. thither are high concentrations of CBG in specific brain areas such as the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex and these can therefore be thought of as a potential drop mediator of corticosteroid induced psychiatric disorder.Chronic disease and corticosteroidsIn parallel to the psychiatric side effects of corticosteroid therapy, most chronic medical conditions may be associated with considerable psychiatric morbidity. A primary objective of the psychiatrist is to distinguish amongs t the psychiatric effects of chronic illness and corticosteroids. The 1-year prevalence for ICD-10 depressive result alone is 32% (95% CI 30-35) and an average of between about 9% and 23% of patients with one or much chronic physical diseases have co-morbid depression. In an international meta-analysis, patients with a variety of chronic physical diseases and co-morbid depression had significantly worse health scores than those with chronic disease alone. (Moussavi et al 2007) There are many potential reasons for this, including physical symptoms such as pain and secondhand disability leading to loss of function.Studies of depression amongst the medically ill almost always fail however to account for possible corticosteroid effects. In patients with severe COPD given 30 mg of prednisolone for 14 old age, when lung spirometry and mood state were measured, no changes in spirometry were detected until 7 days of active therapy. However, small barely significant reductions in frett ing and depression were measured after 3 days of prednisolone and onwards any measurable improvement in lung function. This single study is a major part of a small evidence base suggesting that corticosteroids produce a mild sense of benefit rather than the wellbeing necessarily being a consequence of physical improvement. (Swinburn et al 1988)Classification, Epidemiology and Clinical FeaturesPsychiatric side effects were first described and classified by Rome and Braceland in 1952 shortly after the initial de provided of corticosteroids into the pharmacopoeia. As can be noted in Table 1, the descriptions of symptoms in 1952 have an implicit pecking order which places psychosis above ego psychological disorder of a neurotic nature and places these above euphoria. (Rome and Braceland 1952)Insert Table 1 about hereEpidemiologyThe proportion of patients bumping psychiatric symptoms during corticosteroid therapy has been report to range from 3 to 75 percent, with a weighted aver age of about 28 percent. (Lewis and metalworker 1983) Amongst the larger studies, the Boston Collaborative drug Surveillance Program (Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program 1972) monitored 718 hospitalized medical patients who received prednisolone, of whom just 21 (3%)had acute psychiatric answers in 6 of 463 (1%) patients receiving 40mg prednisolone, 8 of 175 (5%) patients receiving 41-80mg and 7 of those receiving above 80mg (18%). The dose-response trend was significant, but the study was conducted in 1972 and deals with congenatorly small numbers of affected subjects who underwent only a basic psychiatric screening.In terms of speed of onset, symptoms appear to develop rapidly. In groups of both patients and healthy subjects, psychiatric symptoms occurred between 3 days and one calendar workweek. (Lewis and Smith 1983, Hall 1979, Naber 1996) Evidence shows that significantly more women than men (P =0.009) develop psychiatric symptoms as a function of corticosteroi d treatment. (Nielsen et al 1963)Prednisolone is the medication most cited to causal agency psychiatric side effects. In shift reports, prednisolone was responsible for 37 slipperinesss followed by methylprednisolone, dexamethasone betamethasone, and hydrocortisone. (Lewis and Smith 1983) When dose equivalences were calculated, ranging from 5 to 200mg prednisolone per day, a mean dose of 58.3mg per day or more was cited as substantially raising the risk of a psychiatric reception. This does not mean that psychiatric reactions only occur at higher loony toonss.While dosage is not related to the risk of developing mental disturbances, dosage nor duration of treatment seems to impact upon the time of onset, duration, severity, or type of mental disturbances and it is unclear whether patients with a floor of psychiatric disorder are predisposed to such disturbances. (Ling 1981)Affective SymptomsThe most common psychiatric reaction during glucocorticoid therapy is mood change, which accounts for almost 90 percent of the psychiatric reactions (Hall 1979, Stiefel 1989) In a review of 56 typeface studies of psychiatric reactions to steroids, of those reporting mood symptoms (45 cases), mania was observed in 48%, depression in 25%, and a mixed state in 9%. (Flores and Kenna)Reversible mood change can be seen in healthy control subjects after administration of prednisone and dexamethasone. One study showed that 8/12 healthy controls experienced this, with frenetic symptoms predominating. (Brown 1998) A provided study which looked at methylprednisone in ophthalmology patients, all of whom were alleviate of psychiatric disorder, found that 36% developed mania or depression during high dose steroid treatment. (Naber 1996) Studies examining the consequences of low dose steroid treatment have found little or no emotional symptomatology (Swinburn 1988).With regard to steroid induced mania, patients typically report sudden euphoric mood, excessive energy, indefatigab ility and somewhat grandiosity. In accession to the rapid development of mood symptoms, suicidality can be associated with steroid treatment. (Flores and Kenna). In addition to mood symptoms patients have been reported to experience sleep disturbances and weight gain.Recurrent affective disorderA further important consideration is whether any such affective disturbance involves one isolated episode or leads on to recurrent disorder. Nine patients whose initial clinical presentation met DSM-IV criteria for a steroid-induced mood disorder were shown in the long term to have a clinical course of bipolar disorder. (Wada 2001) Seven patients ab initio developed a manic or hypomanic state with sub-acute onset ranging from 1 to 3 months and six patients had manic episodes accompanied by psychotic features. The proportion of manic episodes relative to total mood episodes of the 9 patients was 66%, suggesting manic predominance. Seven patients had future day mood episodes that had no dir ect relationship to corticosteroid therapy and were preceded by confused psychosocial stressors. Four of 5 patients who received future steroids rapidly became manic or hypomanic. Recurrent cases of corticosteroid-induced mood disorder therefore appear to have clinical features such as sub-acute onset, frequent accompanying psychotic features, and uniform recurrent episodes in association with psychosocial stressors and corticosteroid use.Psychotic SymptomsIn a review of 55 case reports of steroid induced psychiatric disorder, 58% of cases present psychotic symptoms. (Ling 1981) In 72% of the cases with psychotic symptoms, they were combine with an affective disorder. likely, in a review of 79 case reports there was a 71% incidence of psychotic symptoms with affective symptoms reported in over 75% of these. Hallucinations occurred in 58% of the cases and delusions in 74% .(Lewis and Smith 1983)In a more recent review of 56 case reports, psychotic symptoms were reported in 65% o f cases. In eight of these, the development of psychotic symptoms was more clearly associated with the withdrawal, rather than with the administration, of steroids. (Flores and Kenna) Interestingly, but perhaps coincidentally, seven of these eight cases occurred in female patients. All eight cases include mood disturbance 2 with depression, 4 with mania, and 2 with a mixed state.Cognitive effectsThe cognitive effects of corticosteroid therapy have been seen in patients receiving short term or long-term corticosteroids, and relate primarily to declarative or verbal memory. (Flores and Kenna)In one study, patients on corticosteroids had poorer performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning analyse (RAVLT), (a measure of declarative memory), the Stroop Color Word Test (a measure of working memory) performance, smaller hippocampal playscripts and lower levels of N-acetyl aspartate (a putative(prenominal) marker of neuronal viability in the temporal lobe region). (Brown 2001)Deficits in declarative memory have been observed in subjects receiving as low as 4 to 5 days of dexamethasone or prednisone. (Newcomer 1999) A dose-dependent equipment casualty in declarative memory has been reported with high dose (160 mg/day), but not low dose (40 mg/day) hydrocortisone. It appears that these cognitive impairments may be reversed with the reduction or withdrawal of corticosteroids. Similar results for declarative memory deficits are found in persons with Cushings disease. Such findings are consistent with reductions in hippocampal volume which are correlated with cortisol levels. (Starkman 1992)Steroid Dependence and withdrawalSeveral case reports suggest that corticosteroids may be abused for their euphoric effects. (34) Typically this will involve higher doses of oral systemic steroids although there is one report of dependence secondary to a nasal spray. (35)In a case review, 8 patients out of 11 cases of steroid dependency had a previous psychiatric history (predomina ntly depressive symptomatology), and 4 had a history of drug or alcohol mis-use or dependence. It has been suggested that patients who may request higher steroid doses or who resist dose reduction despite their improving health should be carefully monitored. (Stoudemire 1994)In the more recent review of case studies (Flores and Kenna), the development of psychiatric symptoms was also associated with the withdrawal of steroids. Corticosteroid withdrawal symptoms broadly include depression and fatigue but mania and delirium have also been reported during dose reduction or discontinuation. Psychiatric symptoms during steroid withdrawal generally improve or resolve when corticosteroids are re introduced.Cushings disease and psychiatric disorderCushings syndrome relates to the multi-organ over exposure of iatrogenic or endogenous corticosteroid and is associated with a variety of psychiatric and psychological disturbances. In one study examining 43 patients before and after treatment fo r Cushings psychopathology was observed in a considerable number. Only 8 patients of 43 with active Cushings syndrome (19%) were without psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatric diagnoses included neurotic depression in 20 (46%), possible neurotic depression in 1 (2%), reactive depression in 6 (14%), and non-specific neurotic symptoms in 8 (19%). Psychoses were pretend in 3 of the patients who were depressed, but none of the 43 patients with active Cushings syndrome had a definite diagnosis of Schizophrenia, Mania, obsessive Compulsive Disorder or Generalised Anxiety Disorder.After treatment in 25 patients, when cortisol levels had been substantially reduced (to within normal limits in 88% of them), the percentage rated as psychiatrically asymptomatic increase from 19% to 68%. Scores for depression and worry showed significant improvements after treatment for Cushings syndrome and Eysenck Personality entry assessments showed a significant improvement in neuroticism score. (Kelly 1996)T reatment of Corticosteroid induced psychiatric disorderThere is a very limited literature on the treatment of corticosteroid induced mental disorder, although it can be noted from the forgoing that psychiatric symptoms generally resolve with discontinuation of the medication. In one review of the literature, tapering the dose of steroids alone appears to be effective up to 90% cases. (Flores and Kenna) Case studies also suggest that switching steroids may be of value. (Okishiro et al 2009) The primary objective in managing these conditions is to balance the relative risk of psychiatric disturbance against the medical consequences of withdrawing the steroid.The management of corticosteroid induced psychiatric disorder can otherwise be largely divided into managing an acute psychotic/manic episode versus managing long term depressive symptoms and dependency. Although little evidence exists either way, it can be assumed that severe behavioral disturbance should be managed as it usually is symptomatically with appropriate doses of benzodiazepines and antipsychotics.In terms of managing acute psychotic/manic episodes one study found that of 27 patients treated with lithium carbonate prophylactically none developed severe mood symptoms while receiving corticosteroids. However, six out of 44 patients (14%) not receiving lithium developed mania or depression. (Falk 1979) Antipsychotics, specifically haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine, are noted from case reports to be useful in mania, mixed affective states, psychosis and delirium. A further case report suggested the successful use of low-dose olanzapine (2.5 mg/day) for severe mood swings and suicidal ideation in a patient with asthma on chronic prednisolone therapy.With regard to depressive symptoms, several case reports have demonstrated some evidence with lithium following the onset of depressive symptoms. Carbemazepine has been reported to be useful in managing both manic and depressive symptoms secondary t o corticosteroids. (Wada 2001) There appears to be little benefit from the use of tricyclic antidepressants and in fact, a worsening of neuropsychiatric symptoms has been reported. (Hall 1978) Case reports have been published describing the successful treatment of steroid-induced depression with sertraline, fluvoxamine, and fluoxetine. One such report supports the use of a combination of an antidepressant and antipsychotic in the treatment of steroid-induced psychotic depression (Ismail 2002). Case reports are noted to suggest the effectiveness of benzodiazepines, in the management of specific steroid-induced symptoms as insomnia and anxietyConclusionsAbove all, it is clear that the literature on the psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids is limited and larger studies on medically ill populations need to be carried out. Clinical practice continues to be informed by case reports despite over 50 years of awareness of these problems. There exists a great opportunity for future research to find predictors of steroid response including their genetic and neuroimaging antecedents and it is clear that the literature could be enhanced with future studies and clinical trials.The ICD 10 codes steroid induced psychiatric disorder under F55.5 Abuse of non-dependence-producing substances Steroids or Hormones. No distinction is made about type or chronicity of symptoms. Arguably it may be more useful to classify steroids induced psychiatric disorder under F19.-Mental and behavioral disorders due to multiple drug use and use of other psychoactive substances. Corticosteroid induced psychiatric disorder can pragmatically be classified at present as described in table 2.Insert Table 2 about hereWith regard to the acute corticosteroid syndrome, the clinical presentation can be various(a) but the severity of the symptoms appears to be dose dependent and they tend to occur within the first week of steroid administration. Affective symptoms are most common and a hypomanic/ manic presentation is most likely. more or less patients appear to have sub clinical hypomanic symptoms which they do not report. Symptoms resolve in most cases on discontinuation of the steroid. Cases are best treated with a mixture of a mood stabilizer (possibly prophylactically) and antipsychotic.With regards to chronic steroid syndrome, the merits of continuation of the steroid must be considered and a small literature suggests that depression in this group can be managed with an SSRI and not a tricyclic antidepressant.In patients who are on long term steroids, a dependence and withdrawal syndrome may be seen. No evidence exists as to how this should be managed but again negotiation should occur between the clinicians and the patient on the need for steroids and a gradual tapering of dose should be considered.Presently it is not known whether individuals have idiosyncratic reaction to steroids or that, given a high enough dose everyone would suffer some mental disturbance. Ther e is a suggestion that those with a previous affective disorder or a family history may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of steroids. If as many as 27% of those on high dose steroids suffer psychiatric symptoms, it is surprising that millions of patients do not present to psychiatric services.Case vignette Steroid-induced psychosisA 40-year-old woman was admitted to a GI ward for corticosteroid treatment as a result of a flare-up of her inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Her previous psychiatric history included recurrent depression, for which she had been successfully prescribed fluoxetine by her GP for several years. She was treated for 5 days with prednisolone 40mg IV which was then switched to oral prednisolone prior to her discharge home. Over the next week she progressively became increasingly irritable, experiencing hyperacusis, preferring to stay up all night doing housework and decorating, and suffered from marked lability of mood, fluctuating from euphoria to extr eme despair and tearfulness, and anxiety. She began to experience command hallucinations of her late father, who had suffered from schizophrenia, telling her to kill herself, as he had in fact done a number of years earlier. She experienced delusions of being unclean and malodorous. She was visibly seen to be responding to unseen stimuli. She was unable to leave her home for fear that people wished to harm her. On day 5 post-discharge her family sought help from her GP who recommended that she stop her steroids, after noting that 18 years earlier she had experienced a similar episode in response to steroid treatment for her Crohns disease. Her GP prescribed Chlorpromazine but unfortunately the patient developed a marked pill-rolling tremor and akathisia. Next day the patient attended a GI outpatient clinic and due to her distress and anxiety a psychiatric opinion was immediately sought. She was conversationally admitted and commenced on olanzepine and diazepam with a significant dim inution of her psychosis and anxiety such that after a a couple of(prenominal) days she was able to be discharged home. Over the next several weeks she was closely followed-up by radio link psychiatry as an outpatient. Her psychotic symptoms had completely resolved with olanzapine treatment. She did, however, continued to experience low mood and anxiety as a result of ongoing stress associated with her IBD and required further treatment with antidepressant medications.