Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Motivation In Second Language Learning
Motivation In Second Language LearningMotivation, as other individual differences in snatch wording cultivation, plays a large role which could affect south words ingesting success. It is an incentive to detonate L2 directing and sustain the later attainment process. In course of instructionroom settings, kindred teachers, same materials, it could be seen that even one with highly aptitudes in breeding a mo diction could fail in its achievement if on that point is no adequate need. For the past several decades, favorable psychologists and educators postulate shake up much effort to con this complicated topic through dissimilar aspects. This assignment pull up stakes try to give a description of severalise meetings from literatures in this field which pull up stakes mainly focus on both of the most influential approaches Gardners demand hypothesis and self-determination theory (Deci Ryan,1985, 2002). And past I go away present a brief critique on an empi rical research which was worked by Lucas etal (2010) A Study on the intimate Motivation Factors in Second Language Learning Among Selected Freshman Students. This field of honor had anchor that .At last, I will examine that this research is helpful in understanding second speech accomplishment and teaching from my personal establish got. make out Findings in this researchAccording to Zoltan Dornyei (2005), second nomenclature larn pauperization research has gone through three phrases The social psychology period, the cognitive-situated period, and the processed-oriented period. In these three incompatible periods, it could be found that social psychologist Gardener and his colleagues make the great contribution to their theory about com bowional demand and slavish need. They indicated that second dustup reading is opposite from learning other subjects. Because it could be seen that it shows ones personal disposition and identity. For example, learning English has b een a fevour for many years in China. People learn it may be in run to pass the respective(a) examinations or to communicate with westerners laxly. The former one could be instru psychological demand, alternatively, the later on could be seen as integrative motive. combinative need and instrumental motiveDuring the social psychology period, Integrative pauperization and instrumental indigence has played a influential role.The definition of integrative want apt(p) by Gardner and Lambert is that learning a second oral communication is an quest to communicate with other communities which is a way to point out to their people and socialisation. Relatively, instrumental motivation is just abouthow a desire to learn a second language so as to get a job opportunity or fulfill a credit points in view.The following research later on found that integrative motivation and language learning success had exacting relationship at different aspects. (Clement, 1980Gardner, 1985, 2000 Gardner, Day,MacIntvre, 1992 GardnerLambert, 1972GardnerMacIntvre, 1991, 1993 Gardner, Tremblav,Masgoret, 1997 MasgoretGardner, 2003).For instance, Gardner and Lambert (1972) identified that the students in French courses. They studied how their integrative motivation and instrumental motivation functioned when they learning. They found that integrative motivation played an imortant role in successful learning French. Further evidence were given by Gardner, Tremblay, and Masgoret(1997) which support the point of view. During their research, participants did multiple choice test, a doze test, a vocabulary test, a composition and grades in French who had been measured by one hundred items. Important relationship was found between integrative motivation and each second language learning achievement. Examination given by Ely (1986) studied that to what completion the integrative and instrumental motivation theory could describe motivation of learning Spanish for freshmen in one un iversity. He indicated that validity and the significance of Gardners theory. And then Ramage (1990) identified a group of students motivation in learning French or Spanish when they finished the second year of high school studying. She withal investigated their desire to keep on learning French or Spanish. She confirmed that there was a demonstrable relationship between in interest toward the second Language culture and the willingness to continue learning French or Spanish.As it has been mentioned above, the definition of integrativeness plays a cite role in Gardner and Lamberts (Gardner, 1985, 2000 GardnerLambert, 1972) dominant conceptual framework of second language learning motivation. Other researchers, inspired by this theory had make a great numbers of empirical studies from various aspects (e.g., Clement, 1980 Clement, Dornyei,Noels, 1994 ClementKruidenier, 1985 Dornyei, 1990, 1994a DornyeiKormos, 2000 Gardner, Day,MacIntyme, 1992 Gardner, Lalonde, Moorcroft, 1985 Gardn erMacI.., 1991 Schumann, 1986). To several(prenominal) extend, it could register that these studies supplement and enrich the understanding of relationship between second language motivation and its attitudes toward culture. It has been found a positive view for second language learners who want to integrate other communities and get contact with people. Yet, as a enigma, integrativeness has still existing difficulties for the researchers to define its nature. Gardners (2001) said that the term is used often in the literature, though close inspection will reveal that it has just about different meanings to many different individuals (p. 1). Further studies has still be needed. innate and Extrinsic MotivationWhen it telephone numbers into cognitive-situated period, Self- determination theory which proposed by Deci and Ryan provides two kinds of motivation. indwelling interest focous on the activity for its own sake. On the other hand, external interest based on the rewards su ch as points, candies, compliments, money, test scores, or grades. However, These two types of motivation ar not absolutely dichotomy.It could define that inner motivation (IM) is a motivation which empha size the enjoyment of engaging in activity. Ryan and Deci(1985) suggested that the nature require for competence and self-determination is rooted in inbuilt motivation. Whats more, they supposed that people will choose to engage to an activity which is jibe to their propensities. Because the degree of the activity could rise. And then with ch all(prenominal)enging those difficulties, learners will realize a sense of competence in their abilities. However, the precondition is that they could be given free opportunities to choose.Ryan and Decis (2000) hypothesis cited in Lucas etal (2010 6) stated that no single phenomenon reflects the positive authority of human nature as much as intrinsic motivationwhich is defined as the constituent(a) tendency to seek out diversity and c hallenges, to extend and exercise ones capacities, to explore, and to learn. Developmentalists confirmed that even without rewards, children atomic number 18 active and homophile(a) from the time when are born. It is so all important(p) for cognitive and social rise and that describe a main source of pleasure in lifetime.Ryan and Deci (2000) posit that no single phenomenon reflects the positive potential of human nature as much as intrinsic motivationwhich is defined as the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise ones capacities, to explore, and to learn. Developmentalists comment that from time of birth, children, in their earliest and healthiest states, are active, inquisitive, curious, and playfuleven in the absence of rewards. The whole construct of intrinsic motivation describes this natural endeavor toward assimilation, masteryspontaneous interest, and exploration that is so essential to cognitive and social development and that repr esents a principal source of enjoyment throughout life (CsikszentmihalyiRat hund e, 1993 Ryan1995 in Ryan Deci2000).RyanKuhl and Deci (1997) also argued that despite the fact That humans are generously endowed with intrinsic motivaions, it is clear that the maintenance and enhancement of this inherent liking requires supportive conditions, as it can be readily disrupted by various non supportive conditions. Thus, their theory of intrinsic motivation does not connect what causes intrinsic motivationbut ratherit examines the conditions that elicit and su staff nversus sub payable and diminish this innate propensity.Thus, Deci and Ryan (1985) presented the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) as a subtheory within SDT self-determination theory that had the aim of specifying factors that explain variability in intrinsic motivation. CET was conceptualized in terms of social and environmental factors That help versus undermine intrinsic motivation, being inherent, will be catalyzed when individuals are in conditions that conduce toward its expression. The study of conditions that facilitate versus undermine intrinsic motivation is an important step in understanding sources of both alienation and liberation of the positive aspects of human nature. Furthermore, CET specifies that feelings of competence will not enhance intrinsic motivation unless accompanied by a sense of autonomy (Fisher1978 Ryan1982 i n Ryan Deci.2000).To sumCET framework suggests that social environments can facilitate or nix intrinsic motivation by supporting versus thwarting peoples innate mental needs. Strong links between intrinsic motivation and satisfaction of the needs for autonomy and competence have been demonstrated.It is critical to remember that people will be intrinsically motivated only for activities that hold intrinsic interest for themactivities that have the appeal of noveltychallenge, or aesthetic value.(Ryan and Deci 2000)The term adventitious motivation refers to the perf ormance of an activity in order to attain some separable outcome, and thus, line of descents with intrinsic motivaionwhich refers to doing an activity for the inherent satisfaction of theactivity itself.In contrast to intrinsically motivated appearances, unessential motivation (EM)are those actions carried out to achieve some instrumental endsuch as earning a reward or avoiding a punishment. This type of motivation does not necessarily imply a lack of self-determination in the behaviors performed.Ryan an d Deci (1985) and Vallerand (1987) maintained that different types of extrinsic motivation (EM)could be classified along a continuum according to the extent to which they are internalized into the self- concept (i.e., the extent to which the motivation isself -determined ).Critique on a empirical researchThe paper focused on intrinsic motivation factors that may help identify what specific L2 communicative skill students are more motivated to learn. The study involved 240 freshma n college students from different universities and colleges in Metro Manila. A 48-item questionnaire was administered to the selected respondents. The gists of the study showed that students are intrinsically motivated to learn address and reading skills and that they are intrinsically motivated via knowledge and accomplishment. These may suggest that students are motivated to learn these linguistic skills due to the genuinely nature of the skills which they find interesting and relevant to them. The mastery of these linguistic skills in some way helps them achieve their learning goals which may bring benefits to them in the future.The study investigated if students are intrinsically motivated to learn L2 communicative skills such as writing, reading, speaking and listening. It also examined the factors of intrinsic motivation that may help determine wherefore and why they are not motivated to learn those macro skills. This study adapted Deci and Ryans (1985) self-determination theory and Vallerands (1997) Academic MotivationBenefits from the researchThe study puts forward the reality that indeedEnglish is aprestigious language and that students will always be interested tolearn this language due to the many benefits it may bring. Theirbilingual exposure at a genuinely early stage in their lives puts the Filipinoyoung language learner to an advantage over their Asiancounterparts.It could be seen that motivation is a key component in second language learning. However, in my teaching experience, I could find some students still could be lowly motivated or even lost motivation in learning English. The tenablenesss for this could be found by the research just discussed above.Lucas etal (2010) throwd that teachers are influential in their students motivation towards their own learning competencies. Thus, it is highly important for the second language teachers to advance their own qualification of teaching continuously. Moreover, sufficient preparation for e genuinely class is needed. Students always expected to learn as much as contingent interesting and helpful skills from teachers instruction. So reasonable design and arrangement of the enlarge of schoolroom activities could help students achieve their goals. Firstly, factors relating to a class design should be taken into account such as the length of time, the level of students proficiency, the size of the class, teaching equipment and approaches. Secondly, it is possible that unexpected problems could happen in the process of teaching. Therefore, how to diverseness and adapt other ways of teaching should be considered. For example, at different stages, the teachers role could be instructors or friends. Thirdly, during my schoolroom settings, the procedures often go by the following process leading in, explaining, practicing and output. It could be said that each steps have their own features. Thus, it is significant to noticing activities adoption, the ways of communicatio n and giving feedback. I found that students could get fulfillment and satisfying from a successful classroom teaching process. Thus, in other words, a teacher with more competence in teaching could help students become more confident in learning. At last, students motivation could be motivated and improve their achievement in second language learning.In addition to intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation could also function as a positive role in teaching English. Bilingual exposure in a second language environment could stimulate students extrinsic motivation through different ways. later entering WTO, it has become a heated-topic to learning English. Student extrinsic motivation have been highly strengthened when they found other people were all learning English. Relatively, it could separate that if one found the other students have no interest in learning this kind of language, he or she will probably feel the same way. From another aspects, further more, it could also say that parents positive attitude towards English language and cultures of English speaking countries could generate their childrens extrinsic motivation toward English learning . Conversely, parents negatively charged attitude could result their lack of learning .4 how to stimulate students motivationDuring teaching process, teachers could assent the teaching materials and specific classroom settings to help students to establish a conducive learning motivation, for example, to develop learners interest in learning the language and its culture. At the same time, it is helpful if students could to change their attitudes toward learning second language. At last, they could turn their extrinsic motivation into extrinsic motivation.4.1 to provide a good classroom environmentThe classroom environment is very important to language teaching. As Gardner (1981) stated that we can not actually teach students a conflicting language, but only to hold a suitable language learning environment for students. Good classroom atmosphere could not only make students learning actively and enhance their motivation but also could greatly improve their ability to learn. Psychological research shows that studying in a relative relax and joyful environment could maintain fine mental state and enhance ones memory. Furthermore, it is helpful for letting students thinking creatively and find their potential abilities. Conversely, if the classroom environment is tedious, the state of students learning could be poor. Consequently, negative attitudes toward learning could appear which will weaken the motivation, learning effect will not be guaranteed. In addition, the establishment of the communicative environment is also very important for teachers. It is very likely to stimulated students second language learning motivation by providing their opportunities to use language in an authentic environment. Therefore teachers should as much as possible to try to create communication opportuni ties and harmonious environment to improve students motivation to learn.Inspire students learning motivation through classroom activities.It could be seen that providing students successful learning experience and cultivating their intrisinc interest in activities could achieve the aim of improve students learning motivation in second language learning. there are part of students who have not been inspired by extrinsic or intrinsinc motivation in the classroom settings. For them, targeted activities could be important. Because they could find their learning interest during the participation of various and efficacious activities. It could say that offering opportunities for students with experience of success by calculative suitable actives is a key role in second language learning achievement.4.3 helping students to establish learning goalsLearning objectives could be split into long-term goals and short-term goals. Long-term goals could relatively ensure learners learning behav ior to keep a longer time. Alternatively, achievement of the short-term goals could give students the fulfillment of learning experience, so that students can have a strong learning motivation. Therefore, according to learners different levels of learning, teacher could help students to establish specific long-term goals and short-term goals. Whats more, Long-term goals should have high standards and short-term goals must be feasible.4.4 understand the students learning needsIt is significant for language teachers to understand students learning needs so as to instruct them what they want to learn. Because it is a useful way to arouses students study enthusiasm, and cultivate their interest in learning by fulfill their thirst for knowledge.ConclusionSo far, second language learning motivation is still a complicated topic which has many aspects delay for further study It is has been widely accepted that motivation plays a very significant role in second language learning achievement . The reason for some students learning poorly mainly is that they do not have highly motivation. Motivational strategies for second language learning is important . it is evident that teacher could not create students extrinsic motivation, but teachers attitudes towards second language and its culture could have a great effect on its development. Activities in the classroom could cultivate students intrinsic motivation. .